Apr 292010
 

Project SHAD was a test run time of the Cold War by the U.S. Department of Defense biological and chemical weapons. The exposure of uninformed and unwilling during practice for the test substances, including exposure to U.S. and military personnel in service, has added controversy to recent revelations of the project.

Project SHAD was part of a broader effort by the Ministry of Defense called Project 112. The project began in 1962 during the administration of John F. Kennedy, and it is widely believed that neither Kennedy nor subsequent presidents knew or SHAD Project 112. However, Robert McNamara, Kennedy’s secretary of defense, knows and has approved those tests. There is also some evidence that shows local governments have participated in these tests, but we do not know exactly how they helped with Project SHAD.

The official statement on the purpose of the project SHAD was “… identify warships U.S. vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological agents and develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining an ability to fight. “134 tests were planned initially, but Only 46 trials were actually completed. In these tests, chemical and biological agents have been introduced for military personnel, who were ignoring the time they were involved in such an experience. Nerve agents and products chemicals include, without limitation, the nerve gas VX gas, tabun, sarin, soman, and chemical markers of zinc sulfide, cadmium sulfide, and QNB. Biologicals, Bacillus globigii note, Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) and Francisella tularensis (which causes tularemia or “rabbit fever”).

Revelations on draft Shad were first exposed by independent producer and investigative journalist Eric Longabardi Telemedia News Productions, now based in Los Angeles, CA. survey of 6 years in the program Longabardi secrets begin in early 1994. It eventually led to a series of investigative reports produced by him, which were broadcast on the CBS Evening News in May 2000. Following the release of these exclusive reports, the Pentagon and the Veterans Administration have opened their own investigations in the program long classified. In 2002, the Congressional hearings on the project SHAD, in both the Senate and the House, also paid the media attention on the program still classified. In 2002, pursuing a class action was filed on behalf of the Federal Navy sailors exposed the United States during the tests. Additional measures, including a multi-year medical students was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences / Institute of Medicine to assess damages caused to the health of thousands of U.S. Navy sailors involuntary, civilians, and other who were exposed during secret trials. The results of this study were finally released in May 2007.

28 records have been released, focusing on the Deseret Test Center at Dugway, Utah, which was built entirely for Project Shad and was closed after the project was completed in 1973.

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has undergone great scrutiny, as those who participated in Project 112 and SHAD were not aware of all ongoing trials. Every effort has been made to ensure the informed consent of military personnel. Until 1998, the Department of Defense has officially stated that no project SHAD. Because the Defense Department has refused to recognize the program, the surviving test subjects were unable to obtain disability benefits for health problems related to the project. U.S. Representative Mike Thompson says the program and DoD’s efforts to hide it, “They said – they said, but do not worry about simulators, we only used. And my first thought was, well you lied these guys for 40 years, you lied to me for a couple of years. It would be a leap of faith for me to believe that you are now telling me the truth. “[1]

The Department of Veterans Affairs has undertaken a three-year study comparing experienced veterans affected by the SHAD veterans of similar age who have not participated in any manner or shad Project 112. The cost of approximately U.S. $ 3 million study, and results are being prepared for the next version.

Project SHAD Document 1

Project SHAD Document 1

Project SHAD Document 2

Project SHAD Document 2

Apr 242010
 

Human Plutonium Injection Experiments
The Manhattan Project plutonium and health hazards discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and others at Berkeley, supported plutonium nuclear fission, a process that atoms of Split and published lot of energy. The plutonium has become an urgent material for a variety of the atomic bomb, uranium-235, the fissile isotopes of natural uranium was used in the type bomb others.

The first significant quantities of plutonium became available by January 1944. At that time, Seaborg warned of its potential health risks and proposed studies to learn from its immediate biological behavior. He was a key issue: the more material remained in the body, the more damage it could do. Hundreds of workers would soon be exposed to plutonium and exposure standards are needed. Overexposure is not only injured workers, it could compromise the privacy and disrupt production schedules.

About 10 percent of the supply of plutonium has been allocated for animals studies in January 1944. In the summer of this year, these studies have provided sufficient information on the retention of plutonium justify removal of several employees of Los Alamos, with previous record
exposure to further work with the hardware. Los Alamos had have been several accidental exposure of humans to plutonium, and the imminent prospect of working with much larger quantities increased the desire for even more information on metabolism.

Animal studies have shown that different species excreted early known amounts of plutonium at different rates. This meant that there was no accurate way to correlate the excretion data of animals humans. Consequently, the feeling grew among the staff of medical project to administer known amounts of plutonium at the man to take excretion data accurate. However, it was not until the winter 1944, Los Alamos Health Group staff has developed methods detect concentrations of tracer at the level of plutonium in feces. In February 1945, the group led by Louis Hempelmann and supervised by Wright Langham, used the procedure Workers of accidental ingestion of plutonium.

With a proven method to detect small amounts of plutonium in feces, Los Alamos staff met March 23, 1945, with Robert Colonel Hymer Friedell Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to discuss “medical problems of this project and their relationship with the medical research program of the Manhattan District. “In a memorandum written three days after the meeting, Louis Hempelmann said that the Manhattan Project was invited to examine “a patient hospitalized two or Rochester Chicago be chosen for the injection of 1 to 10 micrograms of material] plutonium [and that the waste will be sent to this laboratory for analysis. “The Manhattan district has also been asked to help make arrangements for this experience “a marker for the man.” These arrangements have been made, and a medical officer MED administered the injection of plutonium first man, April 10 1945 at Oak Ridge Hospital.

Experiments, Part 1

How all injections have been coordinated or even if they were coordinated is unclear. After the test of Oak Ridge, injections were given to Billings Hospital at the University of Chicago April 26, 1945, and the University of California hospital San Francisco May 14, 1945. At the end of June, Manhattan Project entrepreneurs at the University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital has developed a detailed plan for “fast (1 year) Completion follow-up studies of man. “These studies have been included plutonium, uranium, lead and radioactive polonium.

Over the coming months, this plan has been revised, and September 18, 1945, Wright Langham sent the latest version Colonel Stafford Warren, head of the Manhattan District Medical Division, noting that “you and the Colonel Friedell, will Of course, having the final say on whether or not the experiment will thanks in compliance with this plan. “Plutonium Rochester experimental protocol called for 10 subjects for admission to the
Strong Memorial Hospital Ward metabolism in groups of four month for two months and two for the third month.

After injection, samples of blood, urine and faeces should be Langham shipped to Los Alamos for analysis. Documents show that from October 1945 to July 1946, Rochester injected 11 patients. One patient later (designated as HP 11) died of pneumonia and other pre-existing conditions after six days Injection of 20 February. Samuel Bassett Rochester has described this experience as an “acute” that involve collection of feces, but this performance organs and other autopsy material which was sent to Los Alamos to study.

Upon notification of the HP 11, Langham said Bassett, “If you decide to make another terminal case, I suggest you use 50 micrograms [of] plutonium instead of 5. This would allow analysis of much smaller samples and do my job considerably easier. “Langham also said,” I just learned that Chicago is the scene of two experiments using 95 terminal micrograms each. I am reasonably certain that there would be no harm using larger amounts of material if you are sure that the case is one terminal. ”

Both experiments took place in Chicago’s Billings Hospital on December 27, 1945. Both patients died of preexisting disease shortly after injections of 94.91 micrograms of plutonium.

The experimental protocols exist for studies of Rochester. Langham and others who led the study also described in broad Terms how subjects were selected. In general, the choice fell on older people (13 of them were 45 years or more) limited life expectancy. (Ten of the 16 dead who were followed less than 10 years.) Four subjects did, however, live more than 20 years after the experiments.

Although several reports by other research appeared earlier, Langham and others at Los Alamos compiled the most full account of the plutonium injection experiments. They based its findings primarily on the Rochester study. Issued Los Alamos Report LA 1151 in September 1950, the distribution and The excretion of plutonium administered intravenously to humans describes the experiments, tabulated data on plutonium
metabolism, and derived an empirical formula for calculating plutonium retained from the analysis of urine. Although himself THE 1151
remained limited until 1980, information on plutonium Studies made its way into the scientific literature, shortly after injections took place.

Experiments, Part 2

During the 1970s, Patricia W. Durbin, a biophysicist at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, revalued plutonium Langham excretion data. One reason could improve Durbin Langham results were unexpected given the availability of long-term survivors. During her research, she learned that they had submitted lived for 20 years after being injected. Thorough detective work revealed that four other subjects were also still alive in
early 1970s. With the approval of the ACS, the Centre’s support Radiobiology for the man to Argonne National Laboratory, and cooperation of the University of Rochester Strong Memorial The hospital, three of the four survivors were reviewed in 1973. Researchers collected and promptly published new data on the long-term modes of plutonium retention and excretion. Efforts to find and study these subjects survivors ultimately triggered controversy. In the time since the work had been done, the Government has therefore adopted requiring that the subjects give
informed consent as a condition of research. Questions have been raised if the subjects of plutonium consent for the original experiments or the 1973 follow-up examinations. Monitoring investigation resulted in two reports published in ACS internal August 1974. Both concluded that only one subject may have provided any kind of consent. The remaining 17 have participated little verifiable knowledge or experience of its risks.
In addition, reports in 1973 concluded that follow-up studies have been not done with the informed consent of subjects. Three subjects were not informed that they had been injected with plutonium experimental purposes, nor why they had been invited to return to hospital.

Although CEA has not publicly release these reports, the Agency successor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, has published a fact sheet on the issue in 1976. This the program has provided details on the experiments and briefly discussed results of the survey in 1974 ACS on informed consent.

The experiments on plutonium and the public

Publications based on studies of plutonium began to appear in medical literature since 1948. In several articles during the 1950s and early 1960s, Langham said the technique to measure plutonium excreted and returned to the validation Research on the metabolism of plutonium in humans. Some information However, remained secret for a number of years after.

The public has learned about the experiences in 1976, after ERDA issued to the sheet above. Several newspapers have carried stories focusing on the lack of informed consent and to raise questions about medical ethics, but the question seemed to arouse little public concern. Ten years later, a congressional committee issued a report criticizing the plutonium injections and approximately 30 other federal radiation experiments of man. Commonly known as the report of the subcommittee Chairman Edward Markey after J. Markey (D-Mass.), this document again stimulated Limited
media attention at the time.

What the scientific literature and other information on the experiments do not the names of substances their personal stories. This approach has been pursued by Eileen Welsome the Albuquerque Tribune, which in November 1993, published a series on the experiences and issues. The
the author had driven through government reports, scientific journals, and log files to reconstruct the facts on the experiences, including names and other personal details several subjects.

At a press conference in December 1993, Energy Secretary Hazel R. O’Leary has examined the experiences related to plutonium, in conjunction
with the release of more former classified information on a variety subjects. Under a new policy of openness, it also The Department is committed to reveal the full scope and details irradiation experiments of man by the Agency and its predecessors. The history of experiments have been widely national attention and led to public demands that the federal Government to provide full disclosure on the topics.

A year after hiring the secretary, the department located, declassified and made available many documents on injections of plutonium and other radiation of man experiences. Currently under consideration by the Advisory Committee radiation experiments on human and other, this information will provide the basis for a comprehensive analysis of these ethical studies.

Crossroads Able

Crossroads Able, a 23-kiloton air-deployed nuclear weapon detonated on July 1, 1946. This bomb used, and consumed, the infamous Demon core that took the lives of two scientists in two separate criticality accidents.

Apr 242010
 

The 1953 coup of the Iranian State, August 19, 1953 (and called the 28 Mordad coup in Iran), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Iranian prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The crushing of Iran’s first democratically elected government launched 25 years of dictatorship under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who relied heavily on U.S. weapons to remain in power until he was overthrown in February 1979. “For many Iranians, the coup showed the duplicity of the United States, which presents itself as a defender of freedom, but did not hesitate to use underhanded methods to overthrow a democratically elected government based on its own economic and strategic interests, “Agence France-Presse.

In 1951, with almost unanimous support of the Iranian parliament, Mosaddegh nationalized the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). “The agreement of 1933 under which he was operating was widely seen as an exploitation and a violation of the sovereignty of Iran. Petroleum of Iran has been the British government’s largest investment abroad. In addition, the AIOC has always violated the terms of the Agreement of 1933 and was reluctant to renegotiate, even though the movement to nationalize Iran grew in the 1940s. Even if AIOC has been “very profitable “The historian Mark Gasiorowski wrote that” his Iranian workers were poorly paid and lived in squalor. ” Meanwhile, Gasiorowski said, the AIOC, which was 51 percent owned by the British government, tribal bankroll disruptive elements in Iran and some politicians in order to cause the plot. Iran accused Britain for most of its problems and public support for the nationalization has been very strong. Despite popular support Mosaddegh, Great Britain was not prepared to negotiate its most valuable foreign and instigated a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil to pressure Iran economically. Initially, Great Britain mobilized its army to take control of the oil refinery at Abadan, the largest in the world, but the Prime Minister Attlee chose rather to strengthen the economic boycott. With a change to more conservative governments in Great Britain and the United States, Churchill and the U.S. administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower decided to overthrow the government of Iran if the U.S. predecessor Truman administration opposed a coup.

The spy agency of the United States has tried to convince Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to reject Mosaddegh, and at first he refused. The Central Intelligence Agency pressured the weak monarch while bribing thugs, clergy, politicians and military officers to participate in an Iranian propaganda campaign against Mosaddegh and his government. At first the coup seemed to be a failure when the night of August 15-16 Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri has been arrested while trying to arrest Mosaddegh. The Shah fled the country the next day. On 19 August, a crowd pro-Shah, paid by the CIA, marched on the residence of Mosaddegh. Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason by a military court of the Shah. On December 21, 1953, he was sentenced to solitary confinement in a prison cell in central Tehran for three years and then placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. Mosaddegh supporters were arrested, imprisoned, tortured or executed. The foreign minister and closest associate Mosaddegh, Hossein Fatemi, was executed by order of the military court of the Shah. The order was executed by firing squad October 29, 1953. “Triumph (Pahlavi) Shah ordered the execution of dozens of military officers and student leaders who had been closely associated with Mohammad Mossadegh … Shortly after and with the help of the CIA and the agency Israeli intelligence, Mossad, the Shah created a secret police called SAVAK, which became infamous for its brutality. ”

In the wake of the coup, Britain and the United States selected Fazlollah Zahedi be the next prime minister of a military government, and Shah Pahlevi made the appointment, but he dismissed two years later. Pahlevi tried as an authoritarian monarch for the next 26 years until he was overthrown by a popular revolt in 1979. The tangible benefits from the U.S. to overthrow the elected government of Iran has a share of the oil wealth of Iran. Washington has supplied arms to sovereign unpopular Pahlavi, and the CIA trained SAVAK, police repression. In the journal Foreign Policy, former CIA agent Richard Cottam wrote that “defense program of the Shah’s economic and industrial operations, and its oil policy have all been seen by most Iranians to be faithful execution of the instructions U.S. “. The move is widely believed to have contributed to the 1979 Iranian revolution, which deposed the Shah and replaced the pro-Western royal dictatorship with anti-Western Islamic Republic of Iran.

Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, deposed by coup

Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, deposed by coup