From 1942 to 1944, the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service has conducted experiments that exposed thousands of American soldiers to mustard gas, to test the effectiveness of gas masks and protective clothing. They refused to pay disability benefits to victims of these experiments.
As part of its research to the atomic bomb, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsored experiments to test the health effects of putting fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride, which was a by-product of joint manufacturing atomic bomb and chemical manufacturing in general and has been widely used as rat poison, had experienced many adverse health effects at the time. The AEC was concerned about lawsuits filed by workers in their plants to assemble bombs, and residents living nearby who were exposed to large amounts of fluoride and have serious health problems, and in some cases to die as a result of exposure. The first trials of water fluoridation have been conducted on the citizens of Newburgh, New York and took place from 1944 to 1956 as part of an operation known as classified F “Program”. With the assistance of New York staff of the Department of Health, they are then collected blood samples and tissue from Newburgh citizens to test the effects. According to a 1948 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association, the mention of adverse health effects of fluoride was censored by the CEA as a threat to “national security”.
From 1950 to 1953, the U.S. military sprayed toxic chemicals on 6 cities of the United States and Canada, to test the dispersal patterns of chemical weapons. Army records indicated that the chemicals were sprayed on the city of Winnipeg in Canada, including cadmium.
To test whether or not the sulfuric acid, which is used in the manufacture of molasses, was prejudicial as a food additive, the Louisiana State Board of Health has commissioned a study to feed “the black prisoners” anything other than molasses for five weeks.
A 1953 article in the medical / scientific journal Clinical Science describes a medical experiment in which researchers intentionally blisters on the skin on the belly of 41 children, aged 8 to 14, using dirt. The study was conducted to determine the severity of the substance irritates the skin hurts children. After studies, the child’s skin blisters was removed with scissors and stamped with peroxide.
In 1967, the Central Intelligence Agency injected an unknown chemical in the drinking water of the headquarters of the Food and Drug Administration to test their ability to poison drinking water with chemicals.
From about 1951 to 1974, the Holmesburg State Prison in Pennsylvania was the site of extensive dermatological research operations, using prisoners as subjects. Conducted by Dr. Albert Kligman M. University of Pennsylvania, studies have been conducted on behalf of Dow Chemical Company, U.S. Army, and Johnson & Johnson. In one study, for which Dow Chemical paid $ 10,000 Kligman, Kligman injected dioxins are highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange, Dow was manufactured for use in Vietnam at the time, 70 prisoners ( most blacks). The prisoners developed severe lesions that went untreated for seven months. Dow Chemical has chosen to study the health effects of dioxin and other herbicides and how they affect human skin because workers in chemical plants have been developing chloracne. In the study, Kligman applied to nearly the amount of dioxin Dow employees have been exposed. In 1980 and 1981, some people who were used in this study continued Professor Kligman for a variety of health problems, including lupus and psychological damage.
Kligman continued his studies later, dioxin, higher doses of dioxin, he asked the skin 10 prisoners “to 7,500 micrograms of dioxin, which is 468 times the dose that the Dow official Gerald K. Rowe was authorized to administer. Accordingly, the prisoners developed inflammatory pustules and papules.
The program has also made hundreds of Holmesburg inmates a nominal allocation of testing a wide range of cosmetics and chemicals whose health effects are unknown at the time. Upon arrival at Holmesberg, Kligman is claimed to have said “All I saw before me were acres of skin … It was like a farmer seeing a fertile field for the first time.” It has been reported in a 1964 issue of Medical News that 9 of 10 prisoners at Holmesburg Prison were subjects of medical tests.
In 1967, the U.S. military paid Kligman to apply skin blistering chemicals on the face and back of Holmesburg inmates’, ie Kligman, “to learn the skin protects itself against chronic assault of products toxic chemicals, the process of curing itself. ”