The 1953 coup of the Iranian State, August 19, 1953 (and called the 28 Mordad coup in Iran), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Iranian prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The crushing of Iran’s first democratically elected government launched 25 years of dictatorship under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who relied heavily on U.S. weapons to remain in power until he was overthrown in February 1979. “For many Iranians, the coup showed the duplicity of the United States, which presents itself as a defender of freedom, but did not hesitate to use underhanded methods to overthrow a democratically elected government based on its own economic and strategic interests, “Agence France-Presse.
In 1951, with almost unanimous support of the Iranian parliament, Mosaddegh nationalized the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). “The agreement of 1933 under which he was operating was widely seen as an exploitation and a violation of the sovereignty of Iran. Petroleum of Iran has been the British government’s largest investment abroad. In addition, the AIOC has always violated the terms of the Agreement of 1933 and was reluctant to renegotiate, even though the movement to nationalize Iran grew in the 1940s. Even if AIOC has been “very profitable “The historian Mark Gasiorowski wrote that” his Iranian workers were poorly paid and lived in squalor. ” Meanwhile, Gasiorowski said, the AIOC, which was 51 percent owned by the British government, tribal bankroll disruptive elements in Iran and some politicians in order to cause the plot. Iran accused Britain for most of its problems and public support for the nationalization has been very strong. Despite popular support Mosaddegh, Great Britain was not prepared to negotiate its most valuable foreign and instigated a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil to pressure Iran economically. Initially, Great Britain mobilized its army to take control of the oil refinery at Abadan, the largest in the world, but the Prime Minister Attlee chose rather to strengthen the economic boycott. With a change to more conservative governments in Great Britain and the United States, Churchill and the U.S. administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower decided to overthrow the government of Iran if the U.S. predecessor Truman administration opposed a coup.
The spy agency of the United States has tried to convince Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to reject Mosaddegh, and at first he refused. The Central Intelligence Agency pressured the weak monarch while bribing thugs, clergy, politicians and military officers to participate in an Iranian propaganda campaign against Mosaddegh and his government. At first the coup seemed to be a failure when the night of August 15-16 Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri has been arrested while trying to arrest Mosaddegh. The Shah fled the country the next day. On 19 August, a crowd pro-Shah, paid by the CIA, marched on the residence of Mosaddegh. Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason by a military court of the Shah. On December 21, 1953, he was sentenced to solitary confinement in a prison cell in central Tehran for three years and then placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. Mosaddegh supporters were arrested, imprisoned, tortured or executed. The foreign minister and closest associate Mosaddegh, Hossein Fatemi, was executed by order of the military court of the Shah. The order was executed by firing squad October 29, 1953. “Triumph (Pahlavi) Shah ordered the execution of dozens of military officers and student leaders who had been closely associated with Mohammad Mossadegh … Shortly after and with the help of the CIA and the agency Israeli intelligence, Mossad, the Shah created a secret police called SAVAK, which became infamous for its brutality. ”
In the wake of the coup, Britain and the United States selected Fazlollah Zahedi be the next prime minister of a military government, and Shah Pahlevi made the appointment, but he dismissed two years later. Pahlevi tried as an authoritarian monarch for the next 26 years until he was overthrown by a popular revolt in 1979. The tangible benefits from the U.S. to overthrow the elected government of Iran has a share of the oil wealth of Iran. Washington has supplied arms to sovereign unpopular Pahlavi, and the CIA trained SAVAK, police repression. In the journal Foreign Policy, former CIA agent Richard Cottam wrote that “defense program of the Shah’s economic and industrial operations, and its oil policy have all been seen by most Iranians to be faithful execution of the instructions U.S. “. The move is widely believed to have contributed to the 1979 Iranian revolution, which deposed the Shah and replaced the pro-Western royal dictatorship with anti-Western Islamic Republic of Iran.