Jun 132010
 

Majestic 12 (also known as Majic 12, Majestic Trust, M12, MJ 12, MJ XII or at most 12) is the code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders and government officials, so saying-formed in 1947 by a decree of Harry S. President Truman of the United States. The alleged purpose of the committee was to investigate UFO activity in the wake of the Roswell incident, the alleged crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell, New Mexico, July 1947. The Majestic 12 is an important element of UFO conspiracy theory of a permanent government will cover information on UFOs.

Overview

The main evidence of the existence of a group named Majestic twelve is a collection of documents that appeared in 1984. The original MJ-12 documents show that:

The Majestic 12 Group … was created by order of President Truman, September 24, 1947, upon recommendation by Dr. Vannevar Bush and Defense Secretary James Forrestal.

The FBI investigated the documents, and concluded they were forgeries, based primarily on an opinion issued by the Office of the U.S. Air Force Special Investigations (AFOSI). Opinions of UFO researchers are divided: some, Documents may be true while others argue they are wrong, mainly due to errors in formatting and chronology.

In 1985, another document mentioning MJ-12 dating from 1954 was found in a search at the National Archives. Its authenticity is also very controversial. The documents in question are fairly widely available on the Internet, for example on the FBI website, where it is concluded that they are fraudulent.

Since the first MJ-12 documents, thousands of pages of other documents supposedly leaking government mentioning MJ-12 and a cover of the Government of UFO reality have also appeared, sometimes collectively referred to as the Majestic Documents. ” They are all controversial, with many disputing their authenticity. Some have proven to be unquestionably fraudulent, usually retyped rewrites of independent government documents. The primary New MJ-12 is a long document, manual Linotype-set dating from 1954 have called the MJ-12 “Special Operations Manual (SOM). It focuses on the handling of debris and foreign bodies crash. The objections to the authenticity usually center on questions of style and some historical anachronisms.

The documents date from 1942 to 1997 and have been hotly debated in the UFO community. The documents include such matters as the conduct to be used when meeting an alien, diagrams and records of tests on UFOs, memos on assorted Cover-ups, and descriptions of presidential statements on issues related to UFO. The documents contain supposed signatures of important people such as Albert Einstein, Muhammad Dhihal Mahesukeen and Ronald Reagan, creating a major debate in the conspiracy and UFO communities. No document has not been disclosed or published since 1997. Their authenticity remains uncertain, and some even claim to be entirely false.

However, before the onset of various dubious MJ-12 documents, Canadian documents dating from 1950 and 1951 were discovered in 1978. These documents mention the existence of a similar study group, highly classified UFO Research operating within the Pentagon and Development Board (RDB) and headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush. Although the group name is not given, proponents argue that these documents remain the most convincing evidence that this group exists. There is also evidence of a few government scientists involved in this project confirming its existence.

Majestic 12

The 1947 letter, purported to be signed by Harry Truman, authorizing "Operation Majestic Twelve".

Other theories of the MJ-12 group

MJ-12 is sometimes associated [edit] in the UFO conspiracy literature with the recent more historically verifiable but also deeply secret NSC 5412 / 2 Special Group, created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1954. Although the Panel did not specifically concerned with UFOs, and post-date the alleged creation of MJ-12 in 1947, the commonality of the number ’12 ‘in the names of both groups is cited as intriguing, as is the first president, Gordon Gray, being one of the alleged members of MJ-12. As the highest body of central intelligence experts in the first period of the Cold War (the group was to include the President but exclude the vice-president), the panel would certainly have mine and so interest in all fields of national security, including UFO sightings if they were considered a real threat.

Others speculated that MJ-12 may have been another name for the Interplanetary phenomenon unit, a group officially recognized UFO-related military assets in the 1940s by the late 1950s.

Another government group recently associated with MJ-12 was the CIA’s Office of National Estimates or ONE, a forerunner of the current National Intelligence Council (NIC). ONE was created in 1950 by CIA Director General Walter Bedell Smith, who would have replaced Defense Secretary James Forrestal, the MJ-12 after his death. A U.S. history that the NIC was a great guy in the branch of the CIA “whose sole task was to produce coordinated ‘National Intelligence Estimates. [7] In addition to Smith, he seems to be composed of 11 members. A recent article on the history of CIA involvement in UFO investigations states that one has received an intelligence briefing on UFOs January 30, 1953, immediately after the end of the study for the CIA debunking UFO called the Robertson Panel. Members of this time included FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, William Bundy, President Eisenhower’s chief of staff Admiral B. Bieri, and William Langer, a Harvard historian, who was the president. Referring to one as “super think tank” within the CIA, the article states, “is as close as we arrive at a documented version of the rumor Majestic-12 group. ”

Connecting to secret documents Pratt

At the Mutual UFO Network or MUFON 2007 Symposium in Denver Colorado, UFO researcher Brad Sparks presented a paper that describes the MJ12 documents as an elaborate campaign of disinformation perpetrated by William Moore, Richard C. Doty, and other Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) personnel. The sources of this information are files dating from 1981 (three years before the first alleged MJ12 documents area) that UFO researcher Bob Pratt MUFON before his death in 2005. The information was hidden in MUFON’s archives until they are scanned as part of MUFON’s Pandora Project and made available to UFO researchers. The document can be downloaded from the following reference.

MUFON has made the Pratt documents available online. What is the point which has a handwritten date of 2/1/1982 and says: “3. UFO Project Aquarius, classified Top Secret with access restricted to MJ 12. This project began around 1966, but apparently inherited files of earlier project. ”

The meaning of this paragraph is that it ties MJ12 Aquarius document, a document purporting to be manufactured, which claims that Jesus Christ was an alien.

Members

All the alleged original members of MJ-12 was remarkable for its military, government and / or scientific achievements, and all were deceased when the documents first surface (the last to die was Jerome Hunsaker, just months before the MJ-12 papers first appeared).

The initial membership of six civilians (mostly scientists), and six senior military officers, two from each major military service. Three (Souers, Vandenberg, and Hillenkoetter) were the first three heads of the CIA. The Moore / documents Shandera did not say who was the director of MJ-12, or if there was a hierarchy.

The appointed members of MJ-12 were as follows:

* The Admiral Roscoe H. cons Hillenkoetter: first CIA director
* Dr. Vannevar Bush: chaired the War Office of Scientific Research and Development and predecessor National Defense Research Committee, set up and chaired postwar Joint Research and Development (JRDB) and research and development (GDI ) chaired NACA President Carnegie Institution, Washington DC
* James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, first Secretary of Defense (replaced after his death on MJ-12 by Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, 2nd Director of the CIA)
* The General Nathan Twining: headed Air Materiel Command at Wright-Patterson AFB, Air Force Chief of Staff (1953-1957), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1957-1961)
* The General Hoyt Vandenberg: Directed Central Intelligence Group (1946-1947), Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1948-1953)
* General Robert M. Montague: Guided missile expert 1947 commander of Fort Bliss, headed nuclear Armed Forces Special Weapons Center, Sandia Base
* Dr. Jerome Hunsaker: aeronautical engineering, MIT, chaired NACA after Bush
* The Admiral Sidney Souers cons: the first director of the Central Intelligence Group, first secretary general of the National Security Council (NSC)
* Gordon Gray: Secretary of the Army, intelligence and national security expert; CIA psychological strategy board (1951-1953), Chairman of NSC 5412 (1954-1958), National Security Advisor (1958-1961)
* Dr. Donald Menzel: Astronomer, Harvard cryptologist during war; security consultant to the CIA and the NSA
* Dr. Detlev Bronk: Medical physicist; aviation physiologist; President, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, President of Johns Hopkins and the Rockefeller University
* Dr. Lloyd Berkner: Physicist, expert radio JRDB Bush Executive Secretary

According to other sources and MJ-12 papers to emerge later, famous scientists like Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, Karl Compton, Edward Teller, John von Neumann, and Wernher von Braun were also involved with MJ-12.

Documented UFO activities alleged MJ-12 members

Many of these men had reliably documented activities related to UFOs:

* Vandenberg, as Director of the CIA in 1946, had overseen investigations into the ghost rockets called in Europe and wrote intelligence memos about the phenomena. Later, as Air Force Chief of Staff, both Vandenberg and Twining oversaw early U.S. Air Force UFO investigations, like Project Sign and Project Blue Book and has made public statements on UFOs.
* Twining had previously written a famous Secret memo Sept. 23, 1947 (the day before Truman had created MJ-12) stating that flying saucers are real and urged formal investigation by multiple government organizations such as CEA, NACA, NEPA, Bush JRDB, and Air Force Scientific Advisory Board.  This led directly to the creation of Project Sign in late 1947.
* Vandenberg met JRDB Bush during a meeting suddenly called the morning of the Roswell UFO incident (July 8, 1947) and was reported in the press to deal with public relations crises later.
* Bush has been directly implicated in 1950-51 Canadian documents heading a highly secret UFO investigation in research and development (GDI), this assertion was confirmed by Canadian scientist Wilbert B. Smith Immediately after the Roswell UFO incident, Bush made public statements denying any knowledge of UFOs or any relation they might have to secret government projects.
* Berkner was in 1953 the CIA organized Robertson Panel debunking UFOs and helped establish Project Ozma, the first radio telescope search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
* Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949, later wrote several UFO debunking books, and was the most important UFO debunker public of his time. Many conspiracy theorists see this as a “cover up” for alleged MJ12 – Alien Connections.
* Hillenkoetter was on the board of directors of the civil organization NICAP UFO powerful and made public statements to Congress about UFO reality in 1960.
* The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which was chaired from 1941 to 1.958 Hunsaker, is also known from documents to have occasionally drawn in cases of UFOs. Other members of NACA were Bush (1938-1948), Compton (1948-1949), Vandenberg (1948-1953), Twining (1953-1957), and Bronk (1948-1958).
* Teller was a member of a scientific committee in 1949 at Los Alamos National Laboratory research on the UFO phenomenon known as the green fireballs

Professional and social connections between purported MJ-12 members

Research has also shown that there were many social and professional links between the numerous alleged members of MJ-12. For example, Bush, Hunsaker, Bronk, and Berkner all sitting on the Supervisory Committee of Research and Development (GDI), which Bush had established and initially chaired. Other notables on the oversight committee were Karl Compton RDB, Robert Oppenheimer, and Dr. HP Robertson, who led the debunking Robertson Panel, which Berkner was a member. As mentioned, 1950 Canadian documents indicated that Bush led a small group of top secret study of UFOs in the RDB.

Various alleged MJ-12 members or participants as a natural part of the Council of National Security Presidential Office, established in 1947. This includes (depending on the composition of the NSC, which has evolved) various NSC permanent members: Executive Secretary (Souers, Cutler), the Secretary of Defense (Forrestal), the Secretary of the Army (Gray), National Security Advisor (Gray), and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (Vandenberg, Twining). Other non-permanent members who attend meetings of the NSC as advisors and implement policy would be the CIA director (Hillenkoetter Smith), head of research and development (Bush, Compton), Special Assistant the President for National Security Affairs (Cutler, Gray), and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs (Twining).

Therefore, the alleged members and staff participating in the MJ-12 has served on numerous other top government and could conceivably have influenced government policy at many levels. (See also the list of supposed current MJ-12 members below, indicating various individuals who have held high positions in government.)

Members were alleged trust, officials who are often involved in major projects of the government, they have different skills and high security clearances. However, they were not so recognizable that they would not be achieved if they were to be called in an emergency secret. If there is a group, these people would likely members.

Chronology of MJ-12 applications and documents

Arthur Bray (1978)

In 1978, the Canadian researcher Arthur Bray uncovered previously classified UFO documents naming Canadian Dr. Vannevar Bush as heading a group of highly secret UFO investigation in research and development of the United States. No name for the group was given. Bray published excerpts of the documents in his 1979 book, The UFO Connection.
Aquarius document and Paul Bennewitz connection (1980)

The first mention of the term Twelve “MJ” originally appeared in a purported U.S. Air Force teletype dated November 17, 1980. This so-called “Project Aquarius” teletype had been given to Albuquerque physicist and businessman Paul Bennewitz in November 1980 by the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations cons-intelligence officer Richard C. Doty as part of a disinformation campaign to discredit Bennewitz. Bennewitz had photographed and recorded electronic data of what he believed to be UFO activity above and near Kirtland AFB, a sensitive nuclear facility. Bennewitz reported his findings to officials at Kirtland, including Doty. Later it was discovered the Aquarius document, false and had been prepared by Doty.

A sentence in the lengthy teletype read:

The official U.S. government policy and the results of project Aquarius is still classified TOP SECRET with no dissemination outside channels and with access restricted to “MJ twelve.”

As Greg Bishop writes, “Here, near the bottom of this wordy message in late 1980, was the first time anyone had seen a reference to the idea of a suspected government group called ‘MJ Twelve” that controlled UFO information. Of course, nobody suspected at the time the colossal role that this idea would play in the 1980s and ’90s UFOlogy, and it eventually spread beyond its boundaries to become a cultural pillar. ”

As Bennewitz was the subject of a disinformation campaign, many researchers are automatically suspicious of any documents or claims made in association with the Bennewitz affair. Because the entire MJ-12 affair made its appearance only a year after Bray had made public the incriminating Canadian documents secret UFO committee, one theory is that the Project Aquarius teletype was part a cons-intelligence hoax to discredit the information in the just revealed Canadian documents. Thus the various MJ-12 documents may be false, but the secret committee described in the documents checked Canada might still have been real.

Moore / documents Shandera (1984)

What would be known as “MJ-12 Papers” – detailing a secret UFO committee allegedly involved Vannevar Bush – first appeared on a roll of film at the end of 1984 in the mailbox of television documentary producer ( UFO researcher and amateur) Jamie Shandera. Shandera had collaborated with Roswell researcher William Moore since 1982.

Just prior to Bennewitz and the Aquarius document, Moore had been contacted in September 1980 by Doty, who describes himself as representing a shadowy group of 10 military intelligence insiders who claimed to be opposed to UFO secrecy. Moore has called “The Aviary”.

In January 1981, Doty provided Moore with a copy of false document with mention Aquarius MJ Twelve. Moore later claimed similar 1989 he began collaborating with AFOSI in spying on fellow researchers such as Bennewitz, distribution and disinformation, ostensibly to gain the confidence of army officers, but reality to learn truth about UFO they might have and also learn how the military manipulated UFO researchers. In return, Doty and others were to leak information to him.

Later, it emerged that some of the UFO documents given Moore were quoted [real need], but others were forged by Doty and compatriots, or were retyped and altered from the original. In addition, the film posted Shandera with MJ-12 documents was postmarked “Albuquerque,” raising the suspicion obvious that MJ-12 documents were more false documents arising from Doty and AFOSI in Albuquerque.

In 1983, Doty also targeted UFO researcher and journalist Linda Moulton Howe, revealing alleged high-level UFO documents, including those describing crashed alien flying saucers and recovery of aliens. Doty again mentioned MJ-12, explaining that “MJ” was “majority” (not “Majestic”)

Moore soon showed a copy of the Aquarius / MJ 12 teletype given him by Doty to researchers Brad Sparks and Kal Korff. In 1983, Moore also requested Sparks reaction to a plan to create counterfeit government UFO documents, hoping to induce former military officers to speak. Sparks urged Moore not do. The physicist previous year Moore had also approached nuclear ufologist Stanton T. Friedman on the creation of false documents Roswell, always with the idea of encouraging witnesses to come forward. Also, in early 1982, Moore had approached former National Enquirer reporter Bob Pratt (who had originally published an article on Roswell in the Enquirer in 1980). Moore asked Pratt to collaborate on a novel called MAJIK-12. As a result, Pratt always believed that the Majestic-12 papers were a hoax, either perpetrated personally by Moore or perhaps by AFOSI, with the help Doty Moore as a willing target. Moore, however, flatly denied creating the documents, but eventually thought that maybe he had been put in place. Noted UFO skeptic Philip J. Klass also argue that Moore was the most likely hoaxer of the first series of MJ-12 documents.

Unlike Pratt, who was convinced they were a hoax, Friedman investigate historical and technical details in the MJ-12 documents and become their most ardent supporters.

Documents MJ-12 1984/1985

The Eisenhower briefing document

The film would have received by Shandera in 1984 consisted of two MJ-12 documents. The main document, dated November 18, 1952, was prepared by Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter cons, the first CIA director to brief the new president Dwight Eisenhower on the progress of the committee. The document lists all the members of MJ-12 and deals with the United States Air Force investigations and concealment of an alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell, New Mexico, plus another crash in northern Mexico December 1950.

Eisenhower did indeed receive extensive briefings from November 18, 1952, including a briefing at the Pentagon by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which would have included alleged MJ-12 members Twining and Vandenberg. However, Eisenhower’s Pentagon briefing remains classified, and thus the topic remains speculative.

The Cutler / Twining memo (1985)

In 1985, Shandera and Moore began receiving post cards postmarked “New Zealand” with a return address of “Box 189, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” The cards contained a series of cryptic messages referring to “Reese elements” and “Suitland” (among other terms) that Shandera and Moore were taken to a code, but they were unable to “decode” the seeming message.

A few months later, an application of chance Friedman unlocked the mystery: busy due to previous obligations, Friedman asked Moore and newly declassified Shandera examine Air Force documents at the National Archives (NARA) repository in Suitland, Maryland, the head archivist there was named Ed Reese.

After a few days in Suitland, Shandera and Moore discovered yet another MJ-12 document, the so-called Cutler / Twining memo, dated July 14, 1954. Interestingly, the note is placed in “box 189” in the disk group. In this note, NSC Executive Secretary and Eisenhower’s National Security Advisor Robert Cutler informed Air Force Chief of Staff (and alleged MJ-12 member) Nathan Twining of a change of plans in a scheduled MJ -12 information.

Note Cutler-Twining lacked a distinctive catalog number, leading many suspects unless tricked or genuine, the memo was almost certainly planted in the archive.

Moore and Shandera were charged of the hoax memo and then planting it in the archives. However, Friedman noted that the memo, unlike the other early MJ-12 documents that were available in the form of photographs, printed on thin paper original widely used by the government at that time. The paper also has some subtle historical and other details that a civilian hoaxer would be unlikely to know, as a red pencil declassification marking also found with other declassified files. Furthermore, NARA security procedures would make it difficult for a visitor to the Archives to plant such a document, even the skeptical Klass argued that NARA security procedures made it highly unlikely that Shandera and Moore could have planted the Cutler-Twining memo in the archives. Instead, Friedman argues that one of the many soldiers of the Air Force involved in declassifying NARA documents could easily have planted the Cutler / Twining memo with other unrelated documents.

However, most researchers have argued that several points of subtle details for a fake. For example, the date of the alleged MJ-12 meeting does not correspond to a known meeting of import. However, this does not negate Friedman’s point that the note could have been planted by someone in the Air Force.

The FBI investigation (1988)

The MJ-12 documents were first released in 1987 by Shandera, Moore and Friedman. Another copy of the same documents Shandera received in 1984 was sent to a British researcher Timothy Good in 1987, again from an anonymous source. Good first reproduced them in his book Above Top Secret (1988), but later found that the fraudulent documents likely.

After the documents became widely known with the publication of the book Good, the Federal Bureau of Investigation then began its own investigation, urged on by debunker Philip J. Klass. The MJ-12 documents have been classified as “Top Secret, and the FBI’s primary concern is that someone in the United States government had illegally leaked highly sensitive information.

The FBI quickly formed doubts about the authenticity of documents. FBI personnel contacted the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (cons-espionage), asking if MJ-12 has never existed. AFOSI claimed that no committee has never authorized or trained, and that the documents were “false.” The FBI adopted the AFOSI opinion and the FBI’s official position became that the MJ-12 documents were “completely false.”

However, when Stanton Friedman contacted the AFOSI officer, Col. Richard Weaver, who had rendered this opinion, Friedman said Weaver refused to document his assertion. Friedman also noted that Weaver had taught disinformation and propaganda courses AFOSI and was principal author of the Air Force report debunking Roswell in 1994. (Friedman, 110-115)

Timothy Good in Beyond Top Secret also noted that Weaver in 1994 was the director of security and special control of the Pentagon office AFOSI, a high level of organization within the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force . Good commented that AFOSI is “an organization whose work involves cons-espionage and deception, and has a long history of deep involvement in the UFO problem.” Within the Office of Weaver were “planners special.” According to the well, “In the Air Force language, special diets term is a euphemism for deception as well as for ‘perception management’ plans and operations. Conducting an interview with a witness Roswell, Weaver himself admitted: “We are the people who keep secrets.” It is difficult to tell from interviews such as these, such as tactical Cold War deceptions within deceptions are intentionally vague on where the disinformation and concealment for intelligence and effective investigation of the government on UFOs begins.

William Moore would later be revealed that all of New Mexico UFO disinformation scheme was run out of the Pentagon by a Colonel Barry Hennessey of AFOSI. When the directory of Defense Department phone was checked, Hennessey was listed under the “Department of special techniques.” Working under him at the time was the same Col. Weaver.

Friedman raised the question of whether an opinion Weaver objective information on the authenticity of the MJ-12 documents or was deliberately misleading the FBI as an intelligence-cons and disinformation agent, as Doty had done with Moore and Howe earlier.

Journalist Howard Blum in his book Out There (1990) describes in detail the difficulties the FBI to know the truth. One frustrated FBI agent told Blum, “All that we have discovered is that the government does not know what he knows. There are too many secret levels. You can not get a true story. It would not surprise me if we never know if the documents are authentic or not. “

May 182010
 

Operation Paperclip was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program used to recruit scientists from Nazi Germany for use by the United States after the Second World War (1939-45). He was executed by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), and in the context of the growing Soviet-American Cold War (1945-1991), one of the objectives of Operation Paperclip was to deny the German scientific knowledge and expertise of the USSR and the United Kingdom.

Although the recruitment of German scientists JIOA started after the Allied victory in Europe (May 8, 1945), U.S. President Harry Truman did not officially running for Operation Paperclip until August 1945. To Truman expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism.” Said restrictions made it more objectionable to scientists JIOA identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph, and the doctor Hubertus Strughold, both previously classified as a threat “to security forces allied”.

To circumvent the anti-Nazi agenda of President Truman and the Potsdam and Yalta agreements allies, the JIOA worked independently to create jobs and fake political biographies of scientists. The JIOA also removed from the public register of Nazi scientists memberships and affiliations Party regime. Once “cleared” of Nazism, the U.S. government has granted security clearance for scientists working in the United States. Paperclip, the project’s operational name, derived from the clips used to secure scientific personae of new policies to their “American government” scientific personnel records JIOA.

The Osenberg List

Having failed to conquer the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa (June-December 1941), the siege of Leningrad (September 1941-January 1944), Operation Nordlicht (August-October 1942), and the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942-February 1943), the Nazi Germany is a disadvantage logistics. The conquest was not the exhaustion of resources in German and its military-industrial complex was not prepared to defend the Reich Großdeutsches (Greater German Reich) against the counter-attack in the west of the Red Army. In early 1943, the German government began recalling the battle a number of scientists, engineers and technicians, they returned to work in research and development to strengthen the German defense for a long war with the USSR. The recall of front-line combat included 4000 Rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in the north-east coast of Germany, namely:

“Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. „

Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemünde to Canaveral

The Government recalls Nazi Jewish intellectuals currently useful for scientific work necessary to first identify and locate scientists, engineers and technicians can check their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the research engineer in charge of Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association), has recorded the names of politicians Authorized to List Osenberg, which reintegration in scientific work.

In March 1945, University of Bonn, a Polish laboratory technician to find pieces of the list Osenberg stuffed in the toilet, the list eventually reached MI6, who passed it to U.S. intelligence. Then, the U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chairman of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Directorate of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, a list Osenberg used to compile the list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated Wernher von Braun, the Nazi scientist German rocket Prime head of the list’s Grand Staver.

Identification

Operation Overcast – Major Staver original intention was only to the scientists, but what he learned changed purpose of the operation. On May 22, 1945, he sent the telegram from the U.S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes, who urges the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as “The most important for [the war] Pacific” effort. Most engineers worked Osenberg List the German Baltic Coast Army Research Center Peenemünde rocket development V-2, after the seizure, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, southern Germany.

Beginning July 19, 1945, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) has managed the CRA Rocketeers captured under a program called Operation Overcast. However, when the “Camp Overcast” name-quarters of scientists locally became known, the program was renamed the operation paperclip in March 1946. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press has interviewed several scientists.

Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence describes nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, Germany’s main nuclear power project, such as “. . . more value to us than ten divisions of Germans. “In addition Rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also asked chemists, doctors, and naval weaponeers.

Meanwhile, the technical director of the German Army Rocket Wernher von Braun, was imprisoned at PO Box 1142, a secret prison in military intelligence at Fort Hunt, Virginia, USA. Since the prison was unknown to the International Red Cross, its exploitation by the United States in violation of the Geneva Convention. Although the interrogators Von Braun put pressure on him, he was not tortured, but in 1944, another prisoner of war, submarine captain Werner Henke was shot at Fort Hunt.

Capture and detention

From the beginning the United States has established the Subcommittee Combined Intelligence Objectives (CIO). This provided information on the objectives of T-Forces that were targeted in scientific, military and industrial facilities (and their employees) for their expertise. Initial priorities have been the advanced technology such as infrared, which could be used in the war against Japan, to discover what technology has been adopted in Japan, and finally stop searching. A project to halt the search was called “Project Safe Haven” and it was not originally planned against the Soviet Union, but the concern was that German scientists could emigrate and continue their research in countries like Spain, Argentina or Egypt, who had sympathized with Nazi Germany.

Much of the efforts of the United States has focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which, by July 1, 1945 will be part of the Soviet occupation zone. Many German research institutions and personnel were evacuated to the States, especially the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would restrict the ability of the United States to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from that expertise, the U.S. instigated a process of drain “of scientists from Saxony and Thuringia, the issuance of orders such as:

On the orders of the Military Government you have to bring your family and your luggage as you can win tomorrow afternoon at 1300 hours (Friday, June 22, 1945) instead of the town of Bitterfeld. It is not necessary to make winter clothing. Easily transported goods, such as family papers, jewelry, and others should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest station. From there, you travel to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter the size of your family.

In 1947, the evacuation was raised in 1800 estimated technicians and scientists, and 3700-family members. Those with skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers as the code name bin, to be detained and interrogated, in some cases for months.

Some scientists have been collected in the Operation Overcast, but most were moved into villages in the countryside where there were no research facilities do not work, they were provided allowances and forced to report twice a week at the police station to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive on research and education said that technicians and scientists should be released “only after all relevant agencies have ensured that all intelligence information sought has been obtained from them.”

On November 5, 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to discuss the situation of evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the United States, and the possible violation “by the U.S. laws of war or rules of land warfare.” The intelligence director OMGUS RL Walsh has launched a program to relocate evacuees in the Third World, as the Germans called General Walsh “Urwald-Programm” (program of the jungle), but the program never matured. In 1948, 69.5 million were evacuated settlements Reich marks U.S. U.S., a regulation that has quickly become highly devalued during the currency reform that introduced the deutsche mark as its official currency of West Germany.

John Gimbel concluded that the United States put some of the best minds of Germany on the ice for three years, thus depriving the resumption of German expertise.

Operation Paperclip Team

Operation Paperclip Team - A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas; 35 worked at the White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico.

Scientists

In May 1945, the U.S. Navy has received Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the HS 293 missiles for two years, he first worked in Special Devices Centre at Castle Gould House in Hempstead, Long Island, New York in 1947, he moved to Naval Air Station Point Mugu.

In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, Chief Executive of the rocket of Research and Development Division of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists, 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket science arrived at Fort Strong, New York: Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.

In November, December and February, three rocket scientist came to the United States to the service at Fort Bliss, Texas and White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as “War Department Special Employees.

In the early 1950s, legal residence in the United States for certain specialists Paperclip project was affected by the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, therefore, Nazi scientists came legally to the United States to Latin America .

For many decades later, in wartime activities of some scientists Paperclip project were studied. Arthur Rudolph was expelled in 1984 and cleared by the FRG. Similarly, Georg Rickhey was acquitted of war crimes. Hubertus Strughold was involved in Nazi human experimentation, the Aeromedical Library at Brooks Air Force Base was named in his honor in 1977, but was later renamed because the documents of the Nuremberg Tribunal of war crimes related to Strughold medical experiments in which the Dachau prisoners were tortured and killed.

Ninety-six engineers aeronautical were transferred to Wright Field, where the U.S. had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment seized under Operation Lusty (Luftwaffe Secret Technology).

The U.S. army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists – including physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Levovec, physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars and Eberhard both, geophysicist Dr. Helmut Weickmann; the optician Gerhard Schwesinger, and engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Guenther and Hans Ziegler.

In 1946, the U.S. Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel science in a chemical plant Fischer-Tropsch Louisiana, Missouri.

In 1959, ninety-four Operation Paperclip men went to the United States, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand. Until 1990, a paper clip operation imported 1,600 men, under the intellectual reparations owed to the United States and the United Kingdom, some 10 billion dollars in patents and industrial processes.

May 062010
 

The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency has numerous detention camps throughout the United States. Some camps have been recently built or renovated and are complete. The existence of the camps coupled with Presidential Executive Orders giving the President and Department of Homeland Security (now part of FEMA) National control essential functions in case of “catastrophic emergency” have raised concerns that the camps will be used to detain American citizens forcefully.

FEMA was created on 1 April 1979, under President Jimmy Carter’s Executive Order 12127. It merged the Federal Insurance Administration, National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, the National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program, the preparation and the Federal Agency Federal Disaster Assistance Administration activities formerly carried out by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. He also took over Civil Defense Department of Defense, who was in charge of preparing citizens for military attack.

In 1993, Bill Clinton is the direction of FEMA into a Cabinet post. In 2003, FEMA is part of the Department of Homeland Security and Emergency Response Branch.

The stated purpose of FEMA is to “reduce the loss of lives and property and protect the nation from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the nation in a risk-based, a complete system of emergency management preparedness, protection, response, recovery and mitigation. ”

FEMA operation most notable large scale in recent years has been following Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, which took place along the north-central Gulf Coast, especially in relation to New Orleans , Louisiana. FEMA’s response to the disaster has been widely criticized for a slow and inadequate response, blocking external aid private and public individuals and groups, including the Red Cross, the prohibition of photos death and confiscation of equipment and journalist firearms registered by the owner.

The 2006 report of the Congress on FEMA’s handling of Hurricane Katrina said he was “… a national failure, an abdication of the most solemn obligation to provide for the common good ”

Some have criticized FEMA’s failure as due to the emphasis is on the “civil defense” continuity of government programs and intervention against terrorism at the expense of its disaster preparedness response. It is also alleged that Hurricane Katrina was used to verify the continuity of government program, allowing FEMA to repeat the borough by moving a large number of people in camps, suspending their constitutional rights and to militarize the region with the help of private military contractors (mercenaries). Black Water USA, a private security company, has been used in the aftermath of Katrina.

Readiness Exercise 1984 REX-84 program is an emergency involving the implementation of martial law, the movement of civilians and the arrest and detainment of segments of the population. A repetition of the program was conducted April 5 to 13, 1984. It was led by FEMA and the Department of Defense and participate in the coordination of 34 federal departments and agencies. REX-84 was mentioned during the Iran-Contra hearings and publicly exposed by the Miami Herald, Sunday, July 5th, 1987.

Similar large-scale emergency preparedness drills have been held regularly since then. The most recently announced, organized by NORTHCOM, are scheduled for October 15-20. Some say that the exercises continue to include the preparation of the suspension of the Constitution and the implementation of martial law.

Operation Garden Plot is a U.S. Army and National Guard program under the control of U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to provide Federal military support during domestic civil disturbances. An example of implementation of the program was during the 1992 riots in Los Angeles where the U.S. Army and Marine forces were used in conjunction with the California National Guard. [16] In Los Angeles, a decree was made to allow the use of the federal army to respect national laws in accordance with the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act, which imposes restrictions on the domestic use of the army law enforcement purposes.

Recently, however, section 1076 of Public Law 109-364, or the “John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2007” (HR5122) has amended Posse Comitatus and the Insurrection Act (which also imposes limits on domestic military deployment) to allow the federal government to unilaterally take control of state National Guard and the position of federal troops in the country during a “public emergency”.

During the 1960s many presidential decrees were issued authorizing Federal agencies to take over essential functions in the event of a declared emergency. The powers include, among others, the federal government’s authority to take over transportation infrastructure, including roads and ports (10,990), food resources and farms (10,998) and mobilize citizens into work brigades under government supervision (11000).

On May 9, 2007, President George Bush has reaffirmed the role of the federal government during a declared emergency by issuing a decree NSPD 51 / HSPD-20. The decree stipulates that in case of a “catastrophic emergency” all “national essential functions’ may be supported by the executive branch of government and the Department of Homeland Security (including FEMA).

In August 2002, then Attorney General John Ashcroft called for American citizens who are deemed “enemy combatants” being held indefinitely without charge and regardless of the judiciary. This legal situation has been confirmed in the case of a U.S. citizen detained abroad by the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in January 2003 ruling.

In October 2006, the Military Commissions Act was passed by Congress. The law applies to non-US citizens and permits individuals labeled as “enemy combatants” being held indefinitely and without charges. It also denies non-military tribunal judicial review of detention does not take into account international treaties like the Geneva Convention, and declares that the President who defines what constitutes torture.

In January 2007, the American Civil Liberties Union released a report based on documents obtained through a Freedom of Information Act suit showing that the Pentagon had taken at least “186 anti-military protests in the United States and collected more than 2,800 reports involving Americans in a database of anti-terrorist threats. ”

Recently, FEMA has been renovating and constructing new detention camps throughout the country. In Haliburton subsidiary KBR in January 2006 announced it had received an “indefinite delivery / indefinite quantity to build detention facilities for the Department of Homeland Security for a maximum of 385 million over five years.

Citizens who are concerned about the purpose and potential use of detention in the camps have documented and, if possible, filmed the detention facilities. A current estimate of the number of detention camps is located on 800 in all regions of the United States with varying maximum capacities. If one includes government buildings being used for purposes other number is much greater.

FEMA Camp

FEMA Camp

FEMA Camp Gate

FEMA Camp Gate