Jun 132010
 

Majestic 12 (also known as Majic 12, Majestic Trust, M12, MJ 12, MJ XII or at most 12) is the code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders and government officials, so saying-formed in 1947 by a decree of Harry S. President Truman of the United States. The alleged purpose of the committee was to investigate UFO activity in the wake of the Roswell incident, the alleged crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell, New Mexico, July 1947. The Majestic 12 is an important element of UFO conspiracy theory of a permanent government will cover information on UFOs.

Overview

The main evidence of the existence of a group named Majestic twelve is a collection of documents that appeared in 1984. The original MJ-12 documents show that:

The Majestic 12 Group … was created by order of President Truman, September 24, 1947, upon recommendation by Dr. Vannevar Bush and Defense Secretary James Forrestal.

The FBI investigated the documents, and concluded they were forgeries, based primarily on an opinion issued by the Office of the U.S. Air Force Special Investigations (AFOSI). Opinions of UFO researchers are divided: some, Documents may be true while others argue they are wrong, mainly due to errors in formatting and chronology.

In 1985, another document mentioning MJ-12 dating from 1954 was found in a search at the National Archives. Its authenticity is also very controversial. The documents in question are fairly widely available on the Internet, for example on the FBI website, where it is concluded that they are fraudulent.

Since the first MJ-12 documents, thousands of pages of other documents supposedly leaking government mentioning MJ-12 and a cover of the Government of UFO reality have also appeared, sometimes collectively referred to as the Majestic Documents. ” They are all controversial, with many disputing their authenticity. Some have proven to be unquestionably fraudulent, usually retyped rewrites of independent government documents. The primary New MJ-12 is a long document, manual Linotype-set dating from 1954 have called the MJ-12 “Special Operations Manual (SOM). It focuses on the handling of debris and foreign bodies crash. The objections to the authenticity usually center on questions of style and some historical anachronisms.

The documents date from 1942 to 1997 and have been hotly debated in the UFO community. The documents include such matters as the conduct to be used when meeting an alien, diagrams and records of tests on UFOs, memos on assorted Cover-ups, and descriptions of presidential statements on issues related to UFO. The documents contain supposed signatures of important people such as Albert Einstein, Muhammad Dhihal Mahesukeen and Ronald Reagan, creating a major debate in the conspiracy and UFO communities. No document has not been disclosed or published since 1997. Their authenticity remains uncertain, and some even claim to be entirely false.

However, before the onset of various dubious MJ-12 documents, Canadian documents dating from 1950 and 1951 were discovered in 1978. These documents mention the existence of a similar study group, highly classified UFO Research operating within the Pentagon and Development Board (RDB) and headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush. Although the group name is not given, proponents argue that these documents remain the most convincing evidence that this group exists. There is also evidence of a few government scientists involved in this project confirming its existence.

Majestic 12

The 1947 letter, purported to be signed by Harry Truman, authorizing "Operation Majestic Twelve".

Other theories of the MJ-12 group

MJ-12 is sometimes associated [edit] in the UFO conspiracy literature with the recent more historically verifiable but also deeply secret NSC 5412 / 2 Special Group, created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1954. Although the Panel did not specifically concerned with UFOs, and post-date the alleged creation of MJ-12 in 1947, the commonality of the number ’12 ‘in the names of both groups is cited as intriguing, as is the first president, Gordon Gray, being one of the alleged members of MJ-12. As the highest body of central intelligence experts in the first period of the Cold War (the group was to include the President but exclude the vice-president), the panel would certainly have mine and so interest in all fields of national security, including UFO sightings if they were considered a real threat.

Others speculated that MJ-12 may have been another name for the Interplanetary phenomenon unit, a group officially recognized UFO-related military assets in the 1940s by the late 1950s.

Another government group recently associated with MJ-12 was the CIA’s Office of National Estimates or ONE, a forerunner of the current National Intelligence Council (NIC). ONE was created in 1950 by CIA Director General Walter Bedell Smith, who would have replaced Defense Secretary James Forrestal, the MJ-12 after his death. A U.S. history that the NIC was a great guy in the branch of the CIA “whose sole task was to produce coordinated ‘National Intelligence Estimates. [7] In addition to Smith, he seems to be composed of 11 members. A recent article on the history of CIA involvement in UFO investigations states that one has received an intelligence briefing on UFOs January 30, 1953, immediately after the end of the study for the CIA debunking UFO called the Robertson Panel. Members of this time included FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, William Bundy, President Eisenhower’s chief of staff Admiral B. Bieri, and William Langer, a Harvard historian, who was the president. Referring to one as “super think tank” within the CIA, the article states, “is as close as we arrive at a documented version of the rumor Majestic-12 group. ”

Connecting to secret documents Pratt

At the Mutual UFO Network or MUFON 2007 Symposium in Denver Colorado, UFO researcher Brad Sparks presented a paper that describes the MJ12 documents as an elaborate campaign of disinformation perpetrated by William Moore, Richard C. Doty, and other Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) personnel. The sources of this information are files dating from 1981 (three years before the first alleged MJ12 documents area) that UFO researcher Bob Pratt MUFON before his death in 2005. The information was hidden in MUFON’s archives until they are scanned as part of MUFON’s Pandora Project and made available to UFO researchers. The document can be downloaded from the following reference.

MUFON has made the Pratt documents available online. What is the point which has a handwritten date of 2/1/1982 and says: “3. UFO Project Aquarius, classified Top Secret with access restricted to MJ 12. This project began around 1966, but apparently inherited files of earlier project. ”

The meaning of this paragraph is that it ties MJ12 Aquarius document, a document purporting to be manufactured, which claims that Jesus Christ was an alien.

Members

All the alleged original members of MJ-12 was remarkable for its military, government and / or scientific achievements, and all were deceased when the documents first surface (the last to die was Jerome Hunsaker, just months before the MJ-12 papers first appeared).

The initial membership of six civilians (mostly scientists), and six senior military officers, two from each major military service. Three (Souers, Vandenberg, and Hillenkoetter) were the first three heads of the CIA. The Moore / documents Shandera did not say who was the director of MJ-12, or if there was a hierarchy.

The appointed members of MJ-12 were as follows:

* The Admiral Roscoe H. cons Hillenkoetter: first CIA director
* Dr. Vannevar Bush: chaired the War Office of Scientific Research and Development and predecessor National Defense Research Committee, set up and chaired postwar Joint Research and Development (JRDB) and research and development (GDI ) chaired NACA President Carnegie Institution, Washington DC
* James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, first Secretary of Defense (replaced after his death on MJ-12 by Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, 2nd Director of the CIA)
* The General Nathan Twining: headed Air Materiel Command at Wright-Patterson AFB, Air Force Chief of Staff (1953-1957), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1957-1961)
* The General Hoyt Vandenberg: Directed Central Intelligence Group (1946-1947), Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1948-1953)
* General Robert M. Montague: Guided missile expert 1947 commander of Fort Bliss, headed nuclear Armed Forces Special Weapons Center, Sandia Base
* Dr. Jerome Hunsaker: aeronautical engineering, MIT, chaired NACA after Bush
* The Admiral Sidney Souers cons: the first director of the Central Intelligence Group, first secretary general of the National Security Council (NSC)
* Gordon Gray: Secretary of the Army, intelligence and national security expert; CIA psychological strategy board (1951-1953), Chairman of NSC 5412 (1954-1958), National Security Advisor (1958-1961)
* Dr. Donald Menzel: Astronomer, Harvard cryptologist during war; security consultant to the CIA and the NSA
* Dr. Detlev Bronk: Medical physicist; aviation physiologist; President, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, President of Johns Hopkins and the Rockefeller University
* Dr. Lloyd Berkner: Physicist, expert radio JRDB Bush Executive Secretary

According to other sources and MJ-12 papers to emerge later, famous scientists like Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, Karl Compton, Edward Teller, John von Neumann, and Wernher von Braun were also involved with MJ-12.

Documented UFO activities alleged MJ-12 members

Many of these men had reliably documented activities related to UFOs:

* Vandenberg, as Director of the CIA in 1946, had overseen investigations into the ghost rockets called in Europe and wrote intelligence memos about the phenomena. Later, as Air Force Chief of Staff, both Vandenberg and Twining oversaw early U.S. Air Force UFO investigations, like Project Sign and Project Blue Book and has made public statements on UFOs.
* Twining had previously written a famous Secret memo Sept. 23, 1947 (the day before Truman had created MJ-12) stating that flying saucers are real and urged formal investigation by multiple government organizations such as CEA, NACA, NEPA, Bush JRDB, and Air Force Scientific Advisory Board.  This led directly to the creation of Project Sign in late 1947.
* Vandenberg met JRDB Bush during a meeting suddenly called the morning of the Roswell UFO incident (July 8, 1947) and was reported in the press to deal with public relations crises later.
* Bush has been directly implicated in 1950-51 Canadian documents heading a highly secret UFO investigation in research and development (GDI), this assertion was confirmed by Canadian scientist Wilbert B. Smith Immediately after the Roswell UFO incident, Bush made public statements denying any knowledge of UFOs or any relation they might have to secret government projects.
* Berkner was in 1953 the CIA organized Robertson Panel debunking UFOs and helped establish Project Ozma, the first radio telescope search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
* Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949, later wrote several UFO debunking books, and was the most important UFO debunker public of his time. Many conspiracy theorists see this as a “cover up” for alleged MJ12 – Alien Connections.
* Hillenkoetter was on the board of directors of the civil organization NICAP UFO powerful and made public statements to Congress about UFO reality in 1960.
* The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which was chaired from 1941 to 1.958 Hunsaker, is also known from documents to have occasionally drawn in cases of UFOs. Other members of NACA were Bush (1938-1948), Compton (1948-1949), Vandenberg (1948-1953), Twining (1953-1957), and Bronk (1948-1958).
* Teller was a member of a scientific committee in 1949 at Los Alamos National Laboratory research on the UFO phenomenon known as the green fireballs

Professional and social connections between purported MJ-12 members

Research has also shown that there were many social and professional links between the numerous alleged members of MJ-12. For example, Bush, Hunsaker, Bronk, and Berkner all sitting on the Supervisory Committee of Research and Development (GDI), which Bush had established and initially chaired. Other notables on the oversight committee were Karl Compton RDB, Robert Oppenheimer, and Dr. HP Robertson, who led the debunking Robertson Panel, which Berkner was a member. As mentioned, 1950 Canadian documents indicated that Bush led a small group of top secret study of UFOs in the RDB.

Various alleged MJ-12 members or participants as a natural part of the Council of National Security Presidential Office, established in 1947. This includes (depending on the composition of the NSC, which has evolved) various NSC permanent members: Executive Secretary (Souers, Cutler), the Secretary of Defense (Forrestal), the Secretary of the Army (Gray), National Security Advisor (Gray), and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (Vandenberg, Twining). Other non-permanent members who attend meetings of the NSC as advisors and implement policy would be the CIA director (Hillenkoetter Smith), head of research and development (Bush, Compton), Special Assistant the President for National Security Affairs (Cutler, Gray), and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs (Twining).

Therefore, the alleged members and staff participating in the MJ-12 has served on numerous other top government and could conceivably have influenced government policy at many levels. (See also the list of supposed current MJ-12 members below, indicating various individuals who have held high positions in government.)

Members were alleged trust, officials who are often involved in major projects of the government, they have different skills and high security clearances. However, they were not so recognizable that they would not be achieved if they were to be called in an emergency secret. If there is a group, these people would likely members.

Chronology of MJ-12 applications and documents

Arthur Bray (1978)

In 1978, the Canadian researcher Arthur Bray uncovered previously classified UFO documents naming Canadian Dr. Vannevar Bush as heading a group of highly secret UFO investigation in research and development of the United States. No name for the group was given. Bray published excerpts of the documents in his 1979 book, The UFO Connection.
Aquarius document and Paul Bennewitz connection (1980)

The first mention of the term Twelve “MJ” originally appeared in a purported U.S. Air Force teletype dated November 17, 1980. This so-called “Project Aquarius” teletype had been given to Albuquerque physicist and businessman Paul Bennewitz in November 1980 by the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations cons-intelligence officer Richard C. Doty as part of a disinformation campaign to discredit Bennewitz. Bennewitz had photographed and recorded electronic data of what he believed to be UFO activity above and near Kirtland AFB, a sensitive nuclear facility. Bennewitz reported his findings to officials at Kirtland, including Doty. Later it was discovered the Aquarius document, false and had been prepared by Doty.

A sentence in the lengthy teletype read:

The official U.S. government policy and the results of project Aquarius is still classified TOP SECRET with no dissemination outside channels and with access restricted to “MJ twelve.”

As Greg Bishop writes, “Here, near the bottom of this wordy message in late 1980, was the first time anyone had seen a reference to the idea of a suspected government group called ‘MJ Twelve” that controlled UFO information. Of course, nobody suspected at the time the colossal role that this idea would play in the 1980s and ’90s UFOlogy, and it eventually spread beyond its boundaries to become a cultural pillar. ”

As Bennewitz was the subject of a disinformation campaign, many researchers are automatically suspicious of any documents or claims made in association with the Bennewitz affair. Because the entire MJ-12 affair made its appearance only a year after Bray had made public the incriminating Canadian documents secret UFO committee, one theory is that the Project Aquarius teletype was part a cons-intelligence hoax to discredit the information in the just revealed Canadian documents. Thus the various MJ-12 documents may be false, but the secret committee described in the documents checked Canada might still have been real.

Moore / documents Shandera (1984)

What would be known as “MJ-12 Papers” – detailing a secret UFO committee allegedly involved Vannevar Bush – first appeared on a roll of film at the end of 1984 in the mailbox of television documentary producer ( UFO researcher and amateur) Jamie Shandera. Shandera had collaborated with Roswell researcher William Moore since 1982.

Just prior to Bennewitz and the Aquarius document, Moore had been contacted in September 1980 by Doty, who describes himself as representing a shadowy group of 10 military intelligence insiders who claimed to be opposed to UFO secrecy. Moore has called “The Aviary”.

In January 1981, Doty provided Moore with a copy of false document with mention Aquarius MJ Twelve. Moore later claimed similar 1989 he began collaborating with AFOSI in spying on fellow researchers such as Bennewitz, distribution and disinformation, ostensibly to gain the confidence of army officers, but reality to learn truth about UFO they might have and also learn how the military manipulated UFO researchers. In return, Doty and others were to leak information to him.

Later, it emerged that some of the UFO documents given Moore were quoted [real need], but others were forged by Doty and compatriots, or were retyped and altered from the original. In addition, the film posted Shandera with MJ-12 documents was postmarked “Albuquerque,” raising the suspicion obvious that MJ-12 documents were more false documents arising from Doty and AFOSI in Albuquerque.

In 1983, Doty also targeted UFO researcher and journalist Linda Moulton Howe, revealing alleged high-level UFO documents, including those describing crashed alien flying saucers and recovery of aliens. Doty again mentioned MJ-12, explaining that “MJ” was “majority” (not “Majestic”)

Moore soon showed a copy of the Aquarius / MJ 12 teletype given him by Doty to researchers Brad Sparks and Kal Korff. In 1983, Moore also requested Sparks reaction to a plan to create counterfeit government UFO documents, hoping to induce former military officers to speak. Sparks urged Moore not do. The physicist previous year Moore had also approached nuclear ufologist Stanton T. Friedman on the creation of false documents Roswell, always with the idea of encouraging witnesses to come forward. Also, in early 1982, Moore had approached former National Enquirer reporter Bob Pratt (who had originally published an article on Roswell in the Enquirer in 1980). Moore asked Pratt to collaborate on a novel called MAJIK-12. As a result, Pratt always believed that the Majestic-12 papers were a hoax, either perpetrated personally by Moore or perhaps by AFOSI, with the help Doty Moore as a willing target. Moore, however, flatly denied creating the documents, but eventually thought that maybe he had been put in place. Noted UFO skeptic Philip J. Klass also argue that Moore was the most likely hoaxer of the first series of MJ-12 documents.

Unlike Pratt, who was convinced they were a hoax, Friedman investigate historical and technical details in the MJ-12 documents and become their most ardent supporters.

Documents MJ-12 1984/1985

The Eisenhower briefing document

The film would have received by Shandera in 1984 consisted of two MJ-12 documents. The main document, dated November 18, 1952, was prepared by Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter cons, the first CIA director to brief the new president Dwight Eisenhower on the progress of the committee. The document lists all the members of MJ-12 and deals with the United States Air Force investigations and concealment of an alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell, New Mexico, plus another crash in northern Mexico December 1950.

Eisenhower did indeed receive extensive briefings from November 18, 1952, including a briefing at the Pentagon by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which would have included alleged MJ-12 members Twining and Vandenberg. However, Eisenhower’s Pentagon briefing remains classified, and thus the topic remains speculative.

The Cutler / Twining memo (1985)

In 1985, Shandera and Moore began receiving post cards postmarked “New Zealand” with a return address of “Box 189, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” The cards contained a series of cryptic messages referring to “Reese elements” and “Suitland” (among other terms) that Shandera and Moore were taken to a code, but they were unable to “decode” the seeming message.

A few months later, an application of chance Friedman unlocked the mystery: busy due to previous obligations, Friedman asked Moore and newly declassified Shandera examine Air Force documents at the National Archives (NARA) repository in Suitland, Maryland, the head archivist there was named Ed Reese.

After a few days in Suitland, Shandera and Moore discovered yet another MJ-12 document, the so-called Cutler / Twining memo, dated July 14, 1954. Interestingly, the note is placed in “box 189” in the disk group. In this note, NSC Executive Secretary and Eisenhower’s National Security Advisor Robert Cutler informed Air Force Chief of Staff (and alleged MJ-12 member) Nathan Twining of a change of plans in a scheduled MJ -12 information.

Note Cutler-Twining lacked a distinctive catalog number, leading many suspects unless tricked or genuine, the memo was almost certainly planted in the archive.

Moore and Shandera were charged of the hoax memo and then planting it in the archives. However, Friedman noted that the memo, unlike the other early MJ-12 documents that were available in the form of photographs, printed on thin paper original widely used by the government at that time. The paper also has some subtle historical and other details that a civilian hoaxer would be unlikely to know, as a red pencil declassification marking also found with other declassified files. Furthermore, NARA security procedures would make it difficult for a visitor to the Archives to plant such a document, even the skeptical Klass argued that NARA security procedures made it highly unlikely that Shandera and Moore could have planted the Cutler-Twining memo in the archives. Instead, Friedman argues that one of the many soldiers of the Air Force involved in declassifying NARA documents could easily have planted the Cutler / Twining memo with other unrelated documents.

However, most researchers have argued that several points of subtle details for a fake. For example, the date of the alleged MJ-12 meeting does not correspond to a known meeting of import. However, this does not negate Friedman’s point that the note could have been planted by someone in the Air Force.

The FBI investigation (1988)

The MJ-12 documents were first released in 1987 by Shandera, Moore and Friedman. Another copy of the same documents Shandera received in 1984 was sent to a British researcher Timothy Good in 1987, again from an anonymous source. Good first reproduced them in his book Above Top Secret (1988), but later found that the fraudulent documents likely.

After the documents became widely known with the publication of the book Good, the Federal Bureau of Investigation then began its own investigation, urged on by debunker Philip J. Klass. The MJ-12 documents have been classified as “Top Secret, and the FBI’s primary concern is that someone in the United States government had illegally leaked highly sensitive information.

The FBI quickly formed doubts about the authenticity of documents. FBI personnel contacted the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (cons-espionage), asking if MJ-12 has never existed. AFOSI claimed that no committee has never authorized or trained, and that the documents were “false.” The FBI adopted the AFOSI opinion and the FBI’s official position became that the MJ-12 documents were “completely false.”

However, when Stanton Friedman contacted the AFOSI officer, Col. Richard Weaver, who had rendered this opinion, Friedman said Weaver refused to document his assertion. Friedman also noted that Weaver had taught disinformation and propaganda courses AFOSI and was principal author of the Air Force report debunking Roswell in 1994. (Friedman, 110-115)

Timothy Good in Beyond Top Secret also noted that Weaver in 1994 was the director of security and special control of the Pentagon office AFOSI, a high level of organization within the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force . Good commented that AFOSI is “an organization whose work involves cons-espionage and deception, and has a long history of deep involvement in the UFO problem.” Within the Office of Weaver were “planners special.” According to the well, “In the Air Force language, special diets term is a euphemism for deception as well as for ‘perception management’ plans and operations. Conducting an interview with a witness Roswell, Weaver himself admitted: “We are the people who keep secrets.” It is difficult to tell from interviews such as these, such as tactical Cold War deceptions within deceptions are intentionally vague on where the disinformation and concealment for intelligence and effective investigation of the government on UFOs begins.

William Moore would later be revealed that all of New Mexico UFO disinformation scheme was run out of the Pentagon by a Colonel Barry Hennessey of AFOSI. When the directory of Defense Department phone was checked, Hennessey was listed under the “Department of special techniques.” Working under him at the time was the same Col. Weaver.

Friedman raised the question of whether an opinion Weaver objective information on the authenticity of the MJ-12 documents or was deliberately misleading the FBI as an intelligence-cons and disinformation agent, as Doty had done with Moore and Howe earlier.

Journalist Howard Blum in his book Out There (1990) describes in detail the difficulties the FBI to know the truth. One frustrated FBI agent told Blum, “All that we have discovered is that the government does not know what he knows. There are too many secret levels. You can not get a true story. It would not surprise me if we never know if the documents are authentic or not. “

Apr 242010
 

Human Plutonium Injection Experiments
The Manhattan Project plutonium and health hazards discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and others at Berkeley, supported plutonium nuclear fission, a process that atoms of Split and published lot of energy. The plutonium has become an urgent material for a variety of the atomic bomb, uranium-235, the fissile isotopes of natural uranium was used in the type bomb others.

The first significant quantities of plutonium became available by January 1944. At that time, Seaborg warned of its potential health risks and proposed studies to learn from its immediate biological behavior. He was a key issue: the more material remained in the body, the more damage it could do. Hundreds of workers would soon be exposed to plutonium and exposure standards are needed. Overexposure is not only injured workers, it could compromise the privacy and disrupt production schedules.

About 10 percent of the supply of plutonium has been allocated for animals studies in January 1944. In the summer of this year, these studies have provided sufficient information on the retention of plutonium justify removal of several employees of Los Alamos, with previous record
exposure to further work with the hardware. Los Alamos had have been several accidental exposure of humans to plutonium, and the imminent prospect of working with much larger quantities increased the desire for even more information on metabolism.

Animal studies have shown that different species excreted early known amounts of plutonium at different rates. This meant that there was no accurate way to correlate the excretion data of animals humans. Consequently, the feeling grew among the staff of medical project to administer known amounts of plutonium at the man to take excretion data accurate. However, it was not until the winter 1944, Los Alamos Health Group staff has developed methods detect concentrations of tracer at the level of plutonium in feces. In February 1945, the group led by Louis Hempelmann and supervised by Wright Langham, used the procedure Workers of accidental ingestion of plutonium.

With a proven method to detect small amounts of plutonium in feces, Los Alamos staff met March 23, 1945, with Robert Colonel Hymer Friedell Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to discuss “medical problems of this project and their relationship with the medical research program of the Manhattan District. “In a memorandum written three days after the meeting, Louis Hempelmann said that the Manhattan Project was invited to examine “a patient hospitalized two or Rochester Chicago be chosen for the injection of 1 to 10 micrograms of material] plutonium [and that the waste will be sent to this laboratory for analysis. “The Manhattan district has also been asked to help make arrangements for this experience “a marker for the man.” These arrangements have been made, and a medical officer MED administered the injection of plutonium first man, April 10 1945 at Oak Ridge Hospital.

Experiments, Part 1

How all injections have been coordinated or even if they were coordinated is unclear. After the test of Oak Ridge, injections were given to Billings Hospital at the University of Chicago April 26, 1945, and the University of California hospital San Francisco May 14, 1945. At the end of June, Manhattan Project entrepreneurs at the University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital has developed a detailed plan for “fast (1 year) Completion follow-up studies of man. “These studies have been included plutonium, uranium, lead and radioactive polonium.

Over the coming months, this plan has been revised, and September 18, 1945, Wright Langham sent the latest version Colonel Stafford Warren, head of the Manhattan District Medical Division, noting that “you and the Colonel Friedell, will Of course, having the final say on whether or not the experiment will thanks in compliance with this plan. “Plutonium Rochester experimental protocol called for 10 subjects for admission to the
Strong Memorial Hospital Ward metabolism in groups of four month for two months and two for the third month.

After injection, samples of blood, urine and faeces should be Langham shipped to Los Alamos for analysis. Documents show that from October 1945 to July 1946, Rochester injected 11 patients. One patient later (designated as HP 11) died of pneumonia and other pre-existing conditions after six days Injection of 20 February. Samuel Bassett Rochester has described this experience as an “acute” that involve collection of feces, but this performance organs and other autopsy material which was sent to Los Alamos to study.

Upon notification of the HP 11, Langham said Bassett, “If you decide to make another terminal case, I suggest you use 50 micrograms [of] plutonium instead of 5. This would allow analysis of much smaller samples and do my job considerably easier. “Langham also said,” I just learned that Chicago is the scene of two experiments using 95 terminal micrograms each. I am reasonably certain that there would be no harm using larger amounts of material if you are sure that the case is one terminal. ”

Both experiments took place in Chicago’s Billings Hospital on December 27, 1945. Both patients died of preexisting disease shortly after injections of 94.91 micrograms of plutonium.

The experimental protocols exist for studies of Rochester. Langham and others who led the study also described in broad Terms how subjects were selected. In general, the choice fell on older people (13 of them were 45 years or more) limited life expectancy. (Ten of the 16 dead who were followed less than 10 years.) Four subjects did, however, live more than 20 years after the experiments.

Although several reports by other research appeared earlier, Langham and others at Los Alamos compiled the most full account of the plutonium injection experiments. They based its findings primarily on the Rochester study. Issued Los Alamos Report LA 1151 in September 1950, the distribution and The excretion of plutonium administered intravenously to humans describes the experiments, tabulated data on plutonium
metabolism, and derived an empirical formula for calculating plutonium retained from the analysis of urine. Although himself THE 1151
remained limited until 1980, information on plutonium Studies made its way into the scientific literature, shortly after injections took place.

Experiments, Part 2

During the 1970s, Patricia W. Durbin, a biophysicist at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, revalued plutonium Langham excretion data. One reason could improve Durbin Langham results were unexpected given the availability of long-term survivors. During her research, she learned that they had submitted lived for 20 years after being injected. Thorough detective work revealed that four other subjects were also still alive in
early 1970s. With the approval of the ACS, the Centre’s support Radiobiology for the man to Argonne National Laboratory, and cooperation of the University of Rochester Strong Memorial The hospital, three of the four survivors were reviewed in 1973. Researchers collected and promptly published new data on the long-term modes of plutonium retention and excretion. Efforts to find and study these subjects survivors ultimately triggered controversy. In the time since the work had been done, the Government has therefore adopted requiring that the subjects give
informed consent as a condition of research. Questions have been raised if the subjects of plutonium consent for the original experiments or the 1973 follow-up examinations. Monitoring investigation resulted in two reports published in ACS internal August 1974. Both concluded that only one subject may have provided any kind of consent. The remaining 17 have participated little verifiable knowledge or experience of its risks.
In addition, reports in 1973 concluded that follow-up studies have been not done with the informed consent of subjects. Three subjects were not informed that they had been injected with plutonium experimental purposes, nor why they had been invited to return to hospital.

Although CEA has not publicly release these reports, the Agency successor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, has published a fact sheet on the issue in 1976. This the program has provided details on the experiments and briefly discussed results of the survey in 1974 ACS on informed consent.

The experiments on plutonium and the public

Publications based on studies of plutonium began to appear in medical literature since 1948. In several articles during the 1950s and early 1960s, Langham said the technique to measure plutonium excreted and returned to the validation Research on the metabolism of plutonium in humans. Some information However, remained secret for a number of years after.

The public has learned about the experiences in 1976, after ERDA issued to the sheet above. Several newspapers have carried stories focusing on the lack of informed consent and to raise questions about medical ethics, but the question seemed to arouse little public concern. Ten years later, a congressional committee issued a report criticizing the plutonium injections and approximately 30 other federal radiation experiments of man. Commonly known as the report of the subcommittee Chairman Edward Markey after J. Markey (D-Mass.), this document again stimulated Limited
media attention at the time.

What the scientific literature and other information on the experiments do not the names of substances their personal stories. This approach has been pursued by Eileen Welsome the Albuquerque Tribune, which in November 1993, published a series on the experiences and issues. The
the author had driven through government reports, scientific journals, and log files to reconstruct the facts on the experiences, including names and other personal details several subjects.

At a press conference in December 1993, Energy Secretary Hazel R. O’Leary has examined the experiences related to plutonium, in conjunction
with the release of more former classified information on a variety subjects. Under a new policy of openness, it also The Department is committed to reveal the full scope and details irradiation experiments of man by the Agency and its predecessors. The history of experiments have been widely national attention and led to public demands that the federal Government to provide full disclosure on the topics.

A year after hiring the secretary, the department located, declassified and made available many documents on injections of plutonium and other radiation of man experiences. Currently under consideration by the Advisory Committee radiation experiments on human and other, this information will provide the basis for a comprehensive analysis of these ethical studies.

Crossroads Able

Crossroads Able, a 23-kiloton air-deployed nuclear weapon detonated on July 1, 1946. This bomb used, and consumed, the infamous Demon core that took the lives of two scientists in two separate criticality accidents.

Apr 242010
 

The 1953 coup of the Iranian State, August 19, 1953 (and called the 28 Mordad coup in Iran), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Iranian prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The crushing of Iran’s first democratically elected government launched 25 years of dictatorship under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who relied heavily on U.S. weapons to remain in power until he was overthrown in February 1979. “For many Iranians, the coup showed the duplicity of the United States, which presents itself as a defender of freedom, but did not hesitate to use underhanded methods to overthrow a democratically elected government based on its own economic and strategic interests, “Agence France-Presse.

In 1951, with almost unanimous support of the Iranian parliament, Mosaddegh nationalized the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). “The agreement of 1933 under which he was operating was widely seen as an exploitation and a violation of the sovereignty of Iran. Petroleum of Iran has been the British government’s largest investment abroad. In addition, the AIOC has always violated the terms of the Agreement of 1933 and was reluctant to renegotiate, even though the movement to nationalize Iran grew in the 1940s. Even if AIOC has been “very profitable “The historian Mark Gasiorowski wrote that” his Iranian workers were poorly paid and lived in squalor. ” Meanwhile, Gasiorowski said, the AIOC, which was 51 percent owned by the British government, tribal bankroll disruptive elements in Iran and some politicians in order to cause the plot. Iran accused Britain for most of its problems and public support for the nationalization has been very strong. Despite popular support Mosaddegh, Great Britain was not prepared to negotiate its most valuable foreign and instigated a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil to pressure Iran economically. Initially, Great Britain mobilized its army to take control of the oil refinery at Abadan, the largest in the world, but the Prime Minister Attlee chose rather to strengthen the economic boycott. With a change to more conservative governments in Great Britain and the United States, Churchill and the U.S. administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower decided to overthrow the government of Iran if the U.S. predecessor Truman administration opposed a coup.

The spy agency of the United States has tried to convince Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to reject Mosaddegh, and at first he refused. The Central Intelligence Agency pressured the weak monarch while bribing thugs, clergy, politicians and military officers to participate in an Iranian propaganda campaign against Mosaddegh and his government. At first the coup seemed to be a failure when the night of August 15-16 Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri has been arrested while trying to arrest Mosaddegh. The Shah fled the country the next day. On 19 August, a crowd pro-Shah, paid by the CIA, marched on the residence of Mosaddegh. Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason by a military court of the Shah. On December 21, 1953, he was sentenced to solitary confinement in a prison cell in central Tehran for three years and then placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. Mosaddegh supporters were arrested, imprisoned, tortured or executed. The foreign minister and closest associate Mosaddegh, Hossein Fatemi, was executed by order of the military court of the Shah. The order was executed by firing squad October 29, 1953. “Triumph (Pahlavi) Shah ordered the execution of dozens of military officers and student leaders who had been closely associated with Mohammad Mossadegh … Shortly after and with the help of the CIA and the agency Israeli intelligence, Mossad, the Shah created a secret police called SAVAK, which became infamous for its brutality. ”

In the wake of the coup, Britain and the United States selected Fazlollah Zahedi be the next prime minister of a military government, and Shah Pahlevi made the appointment, but he dismissed two years later. Pahlevi tried as an authoritarian monarch for the next 26 years until he was overthrown by a popular revolt in 1979. The tangible benefits from the U.S. to overthrow the elected government of Iran has a share of the oil wealth of Iran. Washington has supplied arms to sovereign unpopular Pahlavi, and the CIA trained SAVAK, police repression. In the journal Foreign Policy, former CIA agent Richard Cottam wrote that “defense program of the Shah’s economic and industrial operations, and its oil policy have all been seen by most Iranians to be faithful execution of the instructions U.S. “. The move is widely believed to have contributed to the 1979 Iranian revolution, which deposed the Shah and replaced the pro-Western royal dictatorship with anti-Western Islamic Republic of Iran.

Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, deposed by coup

Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, deposed by coup