May 012011
 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods, or Northwoods, was a series of false-flag operation proposals that emerged within the government of the United States in 1962. Commit to the proposals for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other officials called terrorist attacks in U.S. cities and elsewhere. These terrorist acts were to be blamed on Cuba, to win public support for a war against the nation that had recently under Fidel Castro Communist created. Part of the Operation Northwoods was to “develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.”

Operation Northwoods proposals hijackings and bombings by the introduction of forged evidence to imply that the Cuban government would be followed. It states:

“The desired resultant from the execution of this plan would put the United States justified in the apparent position of suffering symptoms of a rash and irresponsible government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to peace in the Western Hemisphere.”

Several other proposals were included in Operation Northwoods, including real or simulated actions against various U.S. military and civilian targets. The plan was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chairman Lyman Lemnitzer signed and developed to the Secretary of Defense. Although part of the U.S. government anti-communist Cuban Project initiative Operation Northwoods was never officially recognized, and the proposals in the plan was never executed.

James Bamford holds North Woods as follows:

Operation Northwoods, which called the written consent of the Chairman and every member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for innocent people to had shot on American streets, to be sunk boat with refugees in Cuba on the high seas, in a wave of violent terrorism Washington, DC, Miami and elsewhere started. People would be for bomb attacks have not committed; planes would be hijacked. With false evidence, everything would be blamed on Castro, thus giving Lemnitzer and his cronies the excuse, and public and international support, they had to start their war.

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

Development and publication

The main proposal was in a document entitled “Justification for U.S. military intervention in Cuba (TS), a top-secret collection of draft memoranda from the Department of Defense (DoD) written and presented to the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The document was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara 13th March presented as a preliminary submission for planning. The Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended that both the overt and covert aspects of such an operation will be assigned to them.

The previously secret document was originally published on 18 November 1997 by the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board, a federal agency monitors the release of official documents that you are to John F. Kennedy assassination. A total of 1521 pages of once-secret military records from 1962 to 1964 were released simultaneously by the review board said.

“Annex to Appendix A” and “Annex to Appendix to Appendix A” of the Northwoods document were first published online on 6 November 1998 by the National Security Archive in a joint venture with CNN as part of CNN’s 1998 Cold War television documentary series – especially as a complement to the documentary “Episode 10: Cuba, on 29 aired November 1998. “Annex to Appendix to Appendix A” is the section of the document containing the proposals of terrorist attacks level.

The Northwoods document was published online on 30 April 2001 in a more complete form (ie, including cover memoranda) by the National Security Archive.

What they did

In response to a request for pretexts for military intervention by the Chief of Operations of the Cuba Project, Brig General Edward Lansdale, the document listed methods and outlined plans that the authors believed the public and international support for U.S. military intervention in Cuba Garner . These were supposed to be staged attacks of Cuban origin.

Since it seems desirable to use legitimate provocation as the basis for U.S. military intervention in Cuba a cover and deception plan, to have been necessary preparatory measures, such as has developed in response to Task 33 c, could be used as a first attempt to provoke run are Cuban reactions. Harassment plus deceptive actions to convince the Cubans of imminent invasion would be emphasized. Our military posture during the execution of the plan will allow a rapid change from exercise to intervention if Cuban response justifies.

A series of well-coordinated incidents will be planned to take in and around Guantanamo to give genuine appearance, done by hostile Cuban forces.

a. incidents on a credible attack (not in chronological order):

Start rumors (many). Use clandestine radio.

Land friendly Cubans in uniform “over-the-fence” to stage attack on base.

Capture Cuban (friendly) saboteurs inside the base.

Start riots near the base main gate (friendly Cubans).

Blow up ammunition to the base; fires.

Burn aircraft on air base (sabotage).

Lob mortar shells from outside the base in the base. Some damage to installations.

Capture assault teams approaching from the sea or vicinity of Guantanamo City.

Capture militia storms the base.

Sabotage ship in harbor, large fire-naphthalene.

Basin near port entrance ship. Code of Conduct funerals for mock-victims (may instead of (10) be).

b. United States would be protected by executing offensive operations to water and energy supplies, destroying artillery and mortar emplacements which threaten the foundation to respond.

c. Begin large-scale U.S. military operations.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

 

A “Remember the Maine” incident could be arranged in various forms:

a. We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba.

b. We could blow up a drone (unmanned) vessel anywhere in the Cuban waters. We arrange such incident in the vicinity of Havana or Santiago as a spectacular result cause of the Cuban attack from the air or at sea, or both. The presence of Cuban planes or ships only to study the intention of the ship was pretty convincing evidence that the ship was attacked be removed. The proximity to Havana or Santiago would be credibility, especially those people that the explosion may have seen or heard to pour fire. The U.S. could follow-up covered with an air / sea rescue operation by U.S. fighters ‘evacuate’ remaining members of the crew on the non-existent. Casualty in U.S. newspapers would be a helpful wave of national indignation.

We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.

The terror campaign could be refugees seek refuge in the United States should be drawn. We could sink a boatload of Cubans en route to Florida (real or simulated). We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban are refugees in the United States even to the extent of the injury in the cases made it widely known. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, substantiating the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of the documents prepared Cuban involvement, also in the planning of the idea of ​​an irresponsible government would be helpful.

A “Cuban-based, Castro-supported” filibuster could be simulated against a neighboring Caribbean nation (in the vein of June 14 invasion of the Dominican Republic). We know that Castro is on subversive efforts clandestinely against Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Nicaragua and in the present and possible others. These efforts can be magnified and additional ones for the artificial exposure. For example, the advantages of sensitivity can be taken of the Dominican air force attacks in their national airspace. “Cuba” could be B-26 or C-46 aircraft of the type to make cane burning raids at night. Soviet Bloc incendiaries could be found. This could be “Cuban” messages to the Communist underground in the Dominican Republic and “Cuban” shipments of arms, would be found or caught, be coupled to the beach.

Use of MIG type aircraft by U.S. pilots could provide additional provocation. Harassment of civil air, attacks on ships and the destruction of the U.S. military drone of MIG type planes would be useful as complementary actions. An F-86 would paint passengers that they saw a Cuban MIG, especially if the pilot of the traffic, this fact was known to convince. The main disadvantage of this proposal seems to be the security risk associated with obtaining or modifying an aircraft. However, appropriate copies of the MIG of U.S. resources in about three months to be produced.

to appear Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft continue as harassing measures condoned by the government of Cuba. At the same time real deserter from the Cuban civilian and military air and surface temperature should crafts are encouraged.

It is possible for an event to demonstrate the convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot at creating a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The goal would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba. The passengers were off a group of college students on a holiday or to support any grouping of persons with a common interest in chartering a non-scheduled flight.

a. An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for civilian aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in Miami. At one time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would use the selected passengers, all under carefully prepared aliases loaded aboard. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone.

b. Take time the drones and the actual aircraft is expected to allow a rendezvous south of Florida. From the meeting point of the passenger aircraft will increase to minimum altitude and directly into an auxiliary field Eglin AFB where arrangements are made to evacuate the passengers and the aircraft back to its original state. The drones will now continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will start the transfer on the international distress frequency “MAY” message he is under attack by Cuban MIG aircraft. The transfer is the destruction of the aircraft, which is triggered by radio interrupted. This will allow ICAO radio stations in the western hemisphere, say the U.S., what happened to the aircraft instead of the U.S. is trying to “sell” the incident.

It is possible for an event to bring the would appear that Communist Cuban MIGs have destroyed a USAF aircraft over international waters in an unprovoked attack.

a. Approximately 4 or 5 F-101 aircraft will track from Homestead AFB, Florida, sent to the vicinity of Cuba. Your task will be to reverse course and simulate fakir aircraft for an air defense exercise in southern Florida. These aircraft would conduct variations of these flights on a regular basis. Crews would be briefed at least 12 miles off the Cuban coast will remain, but they would have live ammunition in the event that hostile actions of the Cuban MIGs have been worn.

b. On one such flight, a pre-briefed pilot would fly tail-end Charley at considerable interval between aircraft. While near the Cuban island this pilot would broadcast that he was jumped by MIGs and went under. No other calls would be made. The pilot would then fly directly west at extremely low altitude and land at a secure base, an Eglin auxiliary. The aircraft would be the right people, quickly stored and reached a new tail number. The pilot, the mission would have carried out under a pseudonym would be back its own identity and has returned to his normal seat. The pilot and aircraft would then be gone.

c. In exactly the same time that the aircraft was probably shot down a submarine or small surface craft would pay F-101 parts, parachute, ride, etc., at about 15 to 20 miles off the Cuban coast. The pilots returning to Homestead would be a true story, if they did have. Search ships and aircraft could be shipped and displayed in parts of the aircraft.

Related Operation Mongoose proposals

In addition to Operation Northwoods, under the Operation Mongoose program of the U.S. Department of Defense held a number of similar proposals to be taken against the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro.

Twelve of these proposals by a second February 1962 memorandum entitled “Possible Actions to provoke, harass or Disrupt Cuba,” are written by Brig. submitted to General William H. Craig, and to Brig. General Edward Lansdale, the commander of Operation Mongoose project.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

 

The memorandum describes Operation Bingo, a plan to “create an incident that has an attack on U.S. facilities (GMO) in Cuba and thus to overthrow an apology for the use of U.S. military might over the current Government of Cuba. ”

It also includes operation dirty trick to blame a piece of land when Castro 1962 Mercury crashed manned space flight carrying John Glenn, said: “The goal is the irrevocable proof that, should the MERCURY orbit have not occupied, the fault lies with the Communists .. et al Cuba [sic] “It continues:” This production by the various clues which would prove electronic interference on the part of Cubans to be achieved “.

Even after Lemnitzer lost his job as General Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Chiefs of Staff, false-flag pretext for planned operations, at least in 1963. Another U.S. Department of Defense policy paper prepared in 1963 discussed a plan to give the impression that Cuba was a member of the Organization of American States (OAS), so that the United States could retaliatory attack. The U.S. Department of Defense document says one of the scenarios, “a fictional” Cuban “attack on a member of the OAS could be established, and the attacked state could be asked to take measures of self-defense and the assistance of the United States and OAS.”

The plan was confident that by this action, “the U.S. could almost certainly get the necessary two-thirds support among OAS members for collective action against Cuba.”

Included in the nations of the Joint Chiefs suggested as targets for covert attacks were Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago. Since both were members of the British Commonwealth, the Joint Chiefs hoped that attack by capturing and then falsely blaming Cuba, the USA, people in Switzerland could be in support of a war against Castro foment. As the U.S. Department of Defense report noted:

Each of the situations described above are designed by nature extremely risky in our democratic system to maintain the security, may be after the fact, with very great difficulty. If the decision was the establishment of a contrived situation it is one that should be limited to participation by U.S. personnel only to the most trusted covert personnel. This indicates the inability to use the military units for each aspect of the constructed situation. ”

The U.S. Department beat of Defense report even secretly attacking payment of a person in the Castro government in the United States: “The only area remaining would be to test it to one of the subordinates to bribe Castro, an attack on [the U.S. Navy initiate base] Guantanamo. ”

Reaction

The continued pressure against the Cuban government by internal elements of the U.S. military and intelligence community (the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs, the Cuban Project, etc.) have already called on President John F. Kennedy to try to burgeoning reins hardline anti-communist feeling that intent was in a proactive, aggressive action against communist movements around the globe. After the invasion of the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy had fired CIA Director Allen W. Dulles, Deputy Director Charles P. Cabell, and Deputy Director Richard Bissell, and turned his attention towards Vietnam. Kennedy had also robbed the CIA responsibility for paramilitary operations such as the Bay of Pigs and turned it to the U.S. Department of Defense and Joint Chiefs of Staff, as Commander in Chief, Kennedy was able to control more directly. Kennedy personally expressed outrage many of his employees about growing influence of the CIA on the civilian population and government in America, and his attempt to curtail the CIA’s extensive Cold War, and paramilitary operations was a direct expression of that concern.

Kennedy rejected the Northwoods proposal personally, and it is now the Joint Chiefs’ turn to make his displeasure. A JCS / Pentagon document (Ed Lansdale Memo) of 16 March 1962 as meeting with the President, March 16, 1962 reads: “General Lemnitzer commented that the military contingency plans for U.S. intervention, he had also had plans to use to create plausible pretexts. Force, with the pretext of attacks on U.S. aircraft or a Cuban action in Latin America, for we could fight back. The president said bluntly that we do not discuss the use of military force that General Lemnitzer the United States could thus be found in Berlin or elsewhere engaged, he could not with the planned four divisions in Cuba. “The proposal was to authorize the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, but was not implemented.

After presenting the Northwoods plan from Kennedy Lemnitzer as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, although he was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO in January 1963. American armed forces leaders began to realize how soft Kennedy los Cuba, and the president is increasingly unpopular with the military, a gap that came to a head during Kennedy’s disagreement with the service chiefs on the Cuban missile crisis.

On 3 August 2001 adopted the National Assembly of People’s Power of Cuba (the main legislative organ of the Republic of Cuba) a statement relating to Operation Northwoods and Operation Mongoose which it condemned as the U.S. government plans.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

Jul 242010
 

In conspiracy theory, the term New World Order or NWO refers to the emergence of a bureaucratic collectivist world government.

The common theme in conspiracy theories about a new world order is that of a powerful elite and secretive globalist agenda with conspiring to eventually rule the world through a global totalitarian government that would replace nation-states sovereign and put an end to international power struggles. Important events in politics and finance are speculated to be orchestrated by a cabal of influential operating through numerous front organizations. Many historical and current events are seen as steps in an ongoing conspiracy to achieve world domination through political rallies and secret decision-making.

Before the early 1990s, New World Order conspiracy theories has been limited to two cons-American cultures, primarily the right anti-government activist, fundamentalist Christians and secondarily interested in the emergence of the late time of the Antichrist. The skeptics, including Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet, expressed concern that the conspiracy theories of the far right of a New World Order have not only been embraced by many conspiracy theorists on the left, but have infiltrated the popular culture, ushering in a period of unparalleled people are actively preparing for the millennial apocalyptic United States in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. These political scientists warn that mass hysteria can only fuel terrorism lone wolf, but have devastating effects on American politics, as the extreme right courting the far left to join a revolutionary movement, Third Position able to overturn the established political powers.

In the 20th century, many state, as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill used the term “new world order” to denote a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in the thinking of politics and the balance of power after the First World War and Second World War. They have all seen these periods as opportunities to implement proposals idealistic or liberal global governance in the new sense of collective efforts to identify, understand, or solve worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of nation states to resolve. These proposals have led to the creation of international organizations, such as the United Nations and NATO, and international regimes, such as Bretton Woods and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power and regulate cooperation among nations to achieve a peaceful phase of capitalism. These creations in particular, and of internationalism, in general, however, will always be criticized and opposed by the American right based on isolationism Old and the New Right for benevolent imperialist reasons.

Following the two world wars, liberals have welcomed these new organizations and international regimes, but argued they have suffered a democratic deficit and therefore have not only been insufficient to prevent another world war, but also promote global justice. Thus, activists around the world form a penchant World Federalist Movement on the creation of a “real” new world order. In the 1940s, the British writer HG Wells and futuristic would go further by appropriating and redefining the term “new world order” as synonymous with the creation of a scientifically managed state of the world and socialist economy.

During the Red Scare of 1947-1957, the conspiracy theorists on the American right secular and Christian increasingly adopted mongered and unfounded fears of Freemasons, the Illuminati and the Jews to be the driving force behind an “international communist conspiracy.” The threat of world communism as an atheist state and bureaucratic collectivist world government, demonized as a “Red Menace”, therefore became the main objective of millenarian apocalyptic conspiracy theories.

In the 1960s, the populist right individuals and groups with a worldview producerist, as members of the John Birch Society, played a lot of conspiracy theories claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of internationalists business, greedy bankers and corrupt politicians intent on using the United Nations as a means to create “One World Government.” These unfounded fears of fuel would campaign for the withdrawal of U.S. Bircher UN. American writer Mary M. Davison, in his pamphlet The profound revolution in 1966, traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913 by international bankers, who she later asked, formed the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921 the shadow government. When the brochure was published, “international bankers” have been interpreted by many readers as a reference to an alleged “international Jewish conspiracy banking” orchestrated by the Rothschild.

Affirming that the term “New World Order” is used by a secret elite dedicated to the destruction of all national sovereignties, American writer producerist Gary Allen in his 1971 book No Dare Call It Conspiracy, 1974 Rockefeller book: The Campaign for the New Global Order Book and 1987 Say “No!” New World Order, hinged on the theme of many anti-globalist conspiracy theories right now the United States. Thus, after the fall of communism in the 1990s, the main scapegoat demonized the extreme American right seamlessly changed from crypto-communist who conspired on behalf of the Red Menace to globalists who plot on behalf of New World Order. The relatively painless evolution is due to growing opposition from right to the globalization of capitalism, but also partly the basis underlying paradigm millennial apocalypse, which fueled the Cold War and witch hunts of the McCarthy period.

In its September 11, 1990 Towards a New World Order speech to a joint session of Congress, President George HW Bush described his goals for governance post-Cold War world in cooperation with the post-Soviet states:

Until now, the world we’ve known has been a world divided—a world of barbed wire and concrete block, conflict and cold war. Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a “world order” in which “the principles of justice and fair play … protect the weak against the strong …” A world where the United Nations, freed from cold war stalemate, is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.

The New York Times noted that progressive new world order called the rationalization of American imperial ambitions in the Middle East, while the Conservatives dismissed new security altogether and fulminated any possibility of revival of UN. However, Chip Berlet, an American journalist specializing in investigative study of extreme right movements in the United States, wrote:

When President Bush announced his new foreign policy would help build a New World Order, his phrasing surged through the Christian and secular hard right like an electric shock, since the phrase had been used to represent the dreaded collectivist One World Government for decades. Some Christians saw Bush as signaling the End Times betrayal by a world leader. Secular anticommunists saw a bold attempt to smash US sovereignty and impose a tyrannical collectivist system run by the United Nations.

American televangelist Pat Robertson in 1991 with his bestselling book The New World Order has become the most important popularizer of Christian conspiracy theories in recent American history as a scene in which Wall Street, the Federal Reserve, Council on Foreign Relations, Bilderberg Group, Trilateral Commission control the flow of events behind the scenes, we are constantly pushing and quietly in the direction of a world government for the Antichrist.

Observers note that the galvanization of the populist right conspiracy theorists as Linda Thompson, Mark and Robert K. Koernke Spear in activism led to the rise of the militias, which spread its ideology through anti-government speeches at rallies and meetings, through books and videotapes sold at gun shows, by waves short and satellite radio, and through networks of fax and message boards. However, viral propaganda on the Internet is the most effective contribution to their political extremists on the New World Order finding their way into the literature on the extreme left of some black nationalists, but also literature previously apolitical assassinologists many UFO Kennedy The loss of land theorists and, more recently, occultists. The worldwide appeal of these subcultures then passed the New World Order conspiracy theories like a virus “spirit” to a broad audience of new researchers counterknowledge from mid-1990.

In Europe, national-anarchism, an ideology of extreme right articulated by the British post-third activist Troy Southgate, called for an insurrection against, and the secession of the imagination “Zionist, capitalist New World Order” . National-Anarchists see a convergence in the near future between the left and decentralizing decentralization law to fight against the rise of centralized political and economic New World Order.

After the turn of the century, especially during the financial crisis of 2007-2010, many politicians and experts, like Gordon Brown and Henry Kissinger used the term “new world order” in their advocacy for reform of ‘Keynesian global financial system and their calls for a “new Bretton Woods”, which takes into account the emerging markets like China and India. These declarations had the unintended consequence of providing fresh fodder for New World Order conspiracy theories, and culminated in the former Clinton administration adviser Dick Morris and Sean Hannity conservative talk show claiming his Fox News Channel program Hannity that “conspiracy theorists were right.” Fox News in general, and opinion polls show Glenn Beck, in particular, have been repeatedly criticized by the progressive media watchdog groups not only to integrate the theories of New World Order conspiracy of the radical right, but perhaps shaking his lone wolves in action.

In 2009, U.S. Director Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel published New World Order, a documentary film by acclaimed critic who explores the world of conspiracy theorists, as U.S. radio host Alex Jones, who are committed to exposing and opposing strongly to what they perceive to be the emergence of a New World Order.



The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945

The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945

Jun 132010
 

Majestic 12 (also known as Majic 12, Majestic Trust, M12, MJ 12, MJ XII or at most 12) is the code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders and government officials, so saying-formed in 1947 by a decree of Harry S. President Truman of the United States. The alleged purpose of the committee was to investigate UFO activity in the wake of the Roswell incident, the alleged crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell, New Mexico, July 1947. The Majestic 12 is an important element of UFO conspiracy theory of a permanent government will cover information on UFOs.

Overview

The main evidence of the existence of a group named Majestic twelve is a collection of documents that appeared in 1984. The original MJ-12 documents show that:

The Majestic 12 Group … was created by order of President Truman, September 24, 1947, upon recommendation by Dr. Vannevar Bush and Defense Secretary James Forrestal.

The FBI investigated the documents, and concluded they were forgeries, based primarily on an opinion issued by the Office of the U.S. Air Force Special Investigations (AFOSI). Opinions of UFO researchers are divided: some, Documents may be true while others argue they are wrong, mainly due to errors in formatting and chronology.

In 1985, another document mentioning MJ-12 dating from 1954 was found in a search at the National Archives. Its authenticity is also very controversial. The documents in question are fairly widely available on the Internet, for example on the FBI website, where it is concluded that they are fraudulent.

Since the first MJ-12 documents, thousands of pages of other documents supposedly leaking government mentioning MJ-12 and a cover of the Government of UFO reality have also appeared, sometimes collectively referred to as the Majestic Documents. ” They are all controversial, with many disputing their authenticity. Some have proven to be unquestionably fraudulent, usually retyped rewrites of independent government documents. The primary New MJ-12 is a long document, manual Linotype-set dating from 1954 have called the MJ-12 “Special Operations Manual (SOM). It focuses on the handling of debris and foreign bodies crash. The objections to the authenticity usually center on questions of style and some historical anachronisms.

The documents date from 1942 to 1997 and have been hotly debated in the UFO community. The documents include such matters as the conduct to be used when meeting an alien, diagrams and records of tests on UFOs, memos on assorted Cover-ups, and descriptions of presidential statements on issues related to UFO. The documents contain supposed signatures of important people such as Albert Einstein, Muhammad Dhihal Mahesukeen and Ronald Reagan, creating a major debate in the conspiracy and UFO communities. No document has not been disclosed or published since 1997. Their authenticity remains uncertain, and some even claim to be entirely false.

However, before the onset of various dubious MJ-12 documents, Canadian documents dating from 1950 and 1951 were discovered in 1978. These documents mention the existence of a similar study group, highly classified UFO Research operating within the Pentagon and Development Board (RDB) and headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush. Although the group name is not given, proponents argue that these documents remain the most convincing evidence that this group exists. There is also evidence of a few government scientists involved in this project confirming its existence.

Majestic 12

The 1947 letter, purported to be signed by Harry Truman, authorizing "Operation Majestic Twelve".

Other theories of the MJ-12 group

MJ-12 is sometimes associated [edit] in the UFO conspiracy literature with the recent more historically verifiable but also deeply secret NSC 5412 / 2 Special Group, created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1954. Although the Panel did not specifically concerned with UFOs, and post-date the alleged creation of MJ-12 in 1947, the commonality of the number ’12 ‘in the names of both groups is cited as intriguing, as is the first president, Gordon Gray, being one of the alleged members of MJ-12. As the highest body of central intelligence experts in the first period of the Cold War (the group was to include the President but exclude the vice-president), the panel would certainly have mine and so interest in all fields of national security, including UFO sightings if they were considered a real threat.

Others speculated that MJ-12 may have been another name for the Interplanetary phenomenon unit, a group officially recognized UFO-related military assets in the 1940s by the late 1950s.

Another government group recently associated with MJ-12 was the CIA’s Office of National Estimates or ONE, a forerunner of the current National Intelligence Council (NIC). ONE was created in 1950 by CIA Director General Walter Bedell Smith, who would have replaced Defense Secretary James Forrestal, the MJ-12 after his death. A U.S. history that the NIC was a great guy in the branch of the CIA “whose sole task was to produce coordinated ‘National Intelligence Estimates. [7] In addition to Smith, he seems to be composed of 11 members. A recent article on the history of CIA involvement in UFO investigations states that one has received an intelligence briefing on UFOs January 30, 1953, immediately after the end of the study for the CIA debunking UFO called the Robertson Panel. Members of this time included FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, William Bundy, President Eisenhower’s chief of staff Admiral B. Bieri, and William Langer, a Harvard historian, who was the president. Referring to one as “super think tank” within the CIA, the article states, “is as close as we arrive at a documented version of the rumor Majestic-12 group. ”

Connecting to secret documents Pratt

At the Mutual UFO Network or MUFON 2007 Symposium in Denver Colorado, UFO researcher Brad Sparks presented a paper that describes the MJ12 documents as an elaborate campaign of disinformation perpetrated by William Moore, Richard C. Doty, and other Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) personnel. The sources of this information are files dating from 1981 (three years before the first alleged MJ12 documents area) that UFO researcher Bob Pratt MUFON before his death in 2005. The information was hidden in MUFON’s archives until they are scanned as part of MUFON’s Pandora Project and made available to UFO researchers. The document can be downloaded from the following reference.

MUFON has made the Pratt documents available online. What is the point which has a handwritten date of 2/1/1982 and says: “3. UFO Project Aquarius, classified Top Secret with access restricted to MJ 12. This project began around 1966, but apparently inherited files of earlier project. ”

The meaning of this paragraph is that it ties MJ12 Aquarius document, a document purporting to be manufactured, which claims that Jesus Christ was an alien.

Members

All the alleged original members of MJ-12 was remarkable for its military, government and / or scientific achievements, and all were deceased when the documents first surface (the last to die was Jerome Hunsaker, just months before the MJ-12 papers first appeared).

The initial membership of six civilians (mostly scientists), and six senior military officers, two from each major military service. Three (Souers, Vandenberg, and Hillenkoetter) were the first three heads of the CIA. The Moore / documents Shandera did not say who was the director of MJ-12, or if there was a hierarchy.

The appointed members of MJ-12 were as follows:

* The Admiral Roscoe H. cons Hillenkoetter: first CIA director
* Dr. Vannevar Bush: chaired the War Office of Scientific Research and Development and predecessor National Defense Research Committee, set up and chaired postwar Joint Research and Development (JRDB) and research and development (GDI ) chaired NACA President Carnegie Institution, Washington DC
* James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, first Secretary of Defense (replaced after his death on MJ-12 by Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, 2nd Director of the CIA)
* The General Nathan Twining: headed Air Materiel Command at Wright-Patterson AFB, Air Force Chief of Staff (1953-1957), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1957-1961)
* The General Hoyt Vandenberg: Directed Central Intelligence Group (1946-1947), Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1948-1953)
* General Robert M. Montague: Guided missile expert 1947 commander of Fort Bliss, headed nuclear Armed Forces Special Weapons Center, Sandia Base
* Dr. Jerome Hunsaker: aeronautical engineering, MIT, chaired NACA after Bush
* The Admiral Sidney Souers cons: the first director of the Central Intelligence Group, first secretary general of the National Security Council (NSC)
* Gordon Gray: Secretary of the Army, intelligence and national security expert; CIA psychological strategy board (1951-1953), Chairman of NSC 5412 (1954-1958), National Security Advisor (1958-1961)
* Dr. Donald Menzel: Astronomer, Harvard cryptologist during war; security consultant to the CIA and the NSA
* Dr. Detlev Bronk: Medical physicist; aviation physiologist; President, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, President of Johns Hopkins and the Rockefeller University
* Dr. Lloyd Berkner: Physicist, expert radio JRDB Bush Executive Secretary

According to other sources and MJ-12 papers to emerge later, famous scientists like Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, Karl Compton, Edward Teller, John von Neumann, and Wernher von Braun were also involved with MJ-12.

Documented UFO activities alleged MJ-12 members

Many of these men had reliably documented activities related to UFOs:

* Vandenberg, as Director of the CIA in 1946, had overseen investigations into the ghost rockets called in Europe and wrote intelligence memos about the phenomena. Later, as Air Force Chief of Staff, both Vandenberg and Twining oversaw early U.S. Air Force UFO investigations, like Project Sign and Project Blue Book and has made public statements on UFOs.
* Twining had previously written a famous Secret memo Sept. 23, 1947 (the day before Truman had created MJ-12) stating that flying saucers are real and urged formal investigation by multiple government organizations such as CEA, NACA, NEPA, Bush JRDB, and Air Force Scientific Advisory Board.  This led directly to the creation of Project Sign in late 1947.
* Vandenberg met JRDB Bush during a meeting suddenly called the morning of the Roswell UFO incident (July 8, 1947) and was reported in the press to deal with public relations crises later.
* Bush has been directly implicated in 1950-51 Canadian documents heading a highly secret UFO investigation in research and development (GDI), this assertion was confirmed by Canadian scientist Wilbert B. Smith Immediately after the Roswell UFO incident, Bush made public statements denying any knowledge of UFOs or any relation they might have to secret government projects.
* Berkner was in 1953 the CIA organized Robertson Panel debunking UFOs and helped establish Project Ozma, the first radio telescope search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
* Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949, later wrote several UFO debunking books, and was the most important UFO debunker public of his time. Many conspiracy theorists see this as a “cover up” for alleged MJ12 – Alien Connections.
* Hillenkoetter was on the board of directors of the civil organization NICAP UFO powerful and made public statements to Congress about UFO reality in 1960.
* The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which was chaired from 1941 to 1.958 Hunsaker, is also known from documents to have occasionally drawn in cases of UFOs. Other members of NACA were Bush (1938-1948), Compton (1948-1949), Vandenberg (1948-1953), Twining (1953-1957), and Bronk (1948-1958).
* Teller was a member of a scientific committee in 1949 at Los Alamos National Laboratory research on the UFO phenomenon known as the green fireballs

Professional and social connections between purported MJ-12 members

Research has also shown that there were many social and professional links between the numerous alleged members of MJ-12. For example, Bush, Hunsaker, Bronk, and Berkner all sitting on the Supervisory Committee of Research and Development (GDI), which Bush had established and initially chaired. Other notables on the oversight committee were Karl Compton RDB, Robert Oppenheimer, and Dr. HP Robertson, who led the debunking Robertson Panel, which Berkner was a member. As mentioned, 1950 Canadian documents indicated that Bush led a small group of top secret study of UFOs in the RDB.

Various alleged MJ-12 members or participants as a natural part of the Council of National Security Presidential Office, established in 1947. This includes (depending on the composition of the NSC, which has evolved) various NSC permanent members: Executive Secretary (Souers, Cutler), the Secretary of Defense (Forrestal), the Secretary of the Army (Gray), National Security Advisor (Gray), and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (Vandenberg, Twining). Other non-permanent members who attend meetings of the NSC as advisors and implement policy would be the CIA director (Hillenkoetter Smith), head of research and development (Bush, Compton), Special Assistant the President for National Security Affairs (Cutler, Gray), and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs (Twining).

Therefore, the alleged members and staff participating in the MJ-12 has served on numerous other top government and could conceivably have influenced government policy at many levels. (See also the list of supposed current MJ-12 members below, indicating various individuals who have held high positions in government.)

Members were alleged trust, officials who are often involved in major projects of the government, they have different skills and high security clearances. However, they were not so recognizable that they would not be achieved if they were to be called in an emergency secret. If there is a group, these people would likely members.

Chronology of MJ-12 applications and documents

Arthur Bray (1978)

In 1978, the Canadian researcher Arthur Bray uncovered previously classified UFO documents naming Canadian Dr. Vannevar Bush as heading a group of highly secret UFO investigation in research and development of the United States. No name for the group was given. Bray published excerpts of the documents in his 1979 book, The UFO Connection.
Aquarius document and Paul Bennewitz connection (1980)

The first mention of the term Twelve “MJ” originally appeared in a purported U.S. Air Force teletype dated November 17, 1980. This so-called “Project Aquarius” teletype had been given to Albuquerque physicist and businessman Paul Bennewitz in November 1980 by the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations cons-intelligence officer Richard C. Doty as part of a disinformation campaign to discredit Bennewitz. Bennewitz had photographed and recorded electronic data of what he believed to be UFO activity above and near Kirtland AFB, a sensitive nuclear facility. Bennewitz reported his findings to officials at Kirtland, including Doty. Later it was discovered the Aquarius document, false and had been prepared by Doty.

A sentence in the lengthy teletype read:

The official U.S. government policy and the results of project Aquarius is still classified TOP SECRET with no dissemination outside channels and with access restricted to “MJ twelve.”

As Greg Bishop writes, “Here, near the bottom of this wordy message in late 1980, was the first time anyone had seen a reference to the idea of a suspected government group called ‘MJ Twelve” that controlled UFO information. Of course, nobody suspected at the time the colossal role that this idea would play in the 1980s and ’90s UFOlogy, and it eventually spread beyond its boundaries to become a cultural pillar. ”

As Bennewitz was the subject of a disinformation campaign, many researchers are automatically suspicious of any documents or claims made in association with the Bennewitz affair. Because the entire MJ-12 affair made its appearance only a year after Bray had made public the incriminating Canadian documents secret UFO committee, one theory is that the Project Aquarius teletype was part a cons-intelligence hoax to discredit the information in the just revealed Canadian documents. Thus the various MJ-12 documents may be false, but the secret committee described in the documents checked Canada might still have been real.

Moore / documents Shandera (1984)

What would be known as “MJ-12 Papers” – detailing a secret UFO committee allegedly involved Vannevar Bush – first appeared on a roll of film at the end of 1984 in the mailbox of television documentary producer ( UFO researcher and amateur) Jamie Shandera. Shandera had collaborated with Roswell researcher William Moore since 1982.

Just prior to Bennewitz and the Aquarius document, Moore had been contacted in September 1980 by Doty, who describes himself as representing a shadowy group of 10 military intelligence insiders who claimed to be opposed to UFO secrecy. Moore has called “The Aviary”.

In January 1981, Doty provided Moore with a copy of false document with mention Aquarius MJ Twelve. Moore later claimed similar 1989 he began collaborating with AFOSI in spying on fellow researchers such as Bennewitz, distribution and disinformation, ostensibly to gain the confidence of army officers, but reality to learn truth about UFO they might have and also learn how the military manipulated UFO researchers. In return, Doty and others were to leak information to him.

Later, it emerged that some of the UFO documents given Moore were quoted [real need], but others were forged by Doty and compatriots, or were retyped and altered from the original. In addition, the film posted Shandera with MJ-12 documents was postmarked “Albuquerque,” raising the suspicion obvious that MJ-12 documents were more false documents arising from Doty and AFOSI in Albuquerque.

In 1983, Doty also targeted UFO researcher and journalist Linda Moulton Howe, revealing alleged high-level UFO documents, including those describing crashed alien flying saucers and recovery of aliens. Doty again mentioned MJ-12, explaining that “MJ” was “majority” (not “Majestic”)

Moore soon showed a copy of the Aquarius / MJ 12 teletype given him by Doty to researchers Brad Sparks and Kal Korff. In 1983, Moore also requested Sparks reaction to a plan to create counterfeit government UFO documents, hoping to induce former military officers to speak. Sparks urged Moore not do. The physicist previous year Moore had also approached nuclear ufologist Stanton T. Friedman on the creation of false documents Roswell, always with the idea of encouraging witnesses to come forward. Also, in early 1982, Moore had approached former National Enquirer reporter Bob Pratt (who had originally published an article on Roswell in the Enquirer in 1980). Moore asked Pratt to collaborate on a novel called MAJIK-12. As a result, Pratt always believed that the Majestic-12 papers were a hoax, either perpetrated personally by Moore or perhaps by AFOSI, with the help Doty Moore as a willing target. Moore, however, flatly denied creating the documents, but eventually thought that maybe he had been put in place. Noted UFO skeptic Philip J. Klass also argue that Moore was the most likely hoaxer of the first series of MJ-12 documents.

Unlike Pratt, who was convinced they were a hoax, Friedman investigate historical and technical details in the MJ-12 documents and become their most ardent supporters.

Documents MJ-12 1984/1985

The Eisenhower briefing document

The film would have received by Shandera in 1984 consisted of two MJ-12 documents. The main document, dated November 18, 1952, was prepared by Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter cons, the first CIA director to brief the new president Dwight Eisenhower on the progress of the committee. The document lists all the members of MJ-12 and deals with the United States Air Force investigations and concealment of an alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell, New Mexico, plus another crash in northern Mexico December 1950.

Eisenhower did indeed receive extensive briefings from November 18, 1952, including a briefing at the Pentagon by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which would have included alleged MJ-12 members Twining and Vandenberg. However, Eisenhower’s Pentagon briefing remains classified, and thus the topic remains speculative.

The Cutler / Twining memo (1985)

In 1985, Shandera and Moore began receiving post cards postmarked “New Zealand” with a return address of “Box 189, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” The cards contained a series of cryptic messages referring to “Reese elements” and “Suitland” (among other terms) that Shandera and Moore were taken to a code, but they were unable to “decode” the seeming message.

A few months later, an application of chance Friedman unlocked the mystery: busy due to previous obligations, Friedman asked Moore and newly declassified Shandera examine Air Force documents at the National Archives (NARA) repository in Suitland, Maryland, the head archivist there was named Ed Reese.

After a few days in Suitland, Shandera and Moore discovered yet another MJ-12 document, the so-called Cutler / Twining memo, dated July 14, 1954. Interestingly, the note is placed in “box 189” in the disk group. In this note, NSC Executive Secretary and Eisenhower’s National Security Advisor Robert Cutler informed Air Force Chief of Staff (and alleged MJ-12 member) Nathan Twining of a change of plans in a scheduled MJ -12 information.

Note Cutler-Twining lacked a distinctive catalog number, leading many suspects unless tricked or genuine, the memo was almost certainly planted in the archive.

Moore and Shandera were charged of the hoax memo and then planting it in the archives. However, Friedman noted that the memo, unlike the other early MJ-12 documents that were available in the form of photographs, printed on thin paper original widely used by the government at that time. The paper also has some subtle historical and other details that a civilian hoaxer would be unlikely to know, as a red pencil declassification marking also found with other declassified files. Furthermore, NARA security procedures would make it difficult for a visitor to the Archives to plant such a document, even the skeptical Klass argued that NARA security procedures made it highly unlikely that Shandera and Moore could have planted the Cutler-Twining memo in the archives. Instead, Friedman argues that one of the many soldiers of the Air Force involved in declassifying NARA documents could easily have planted the Cutler / Twining memo with other unrelated documents.

However, most researchers have argued that several points of subtle details for a fake. For example, the date of the alleged MJ-12 meeting does not correspond to a known meeting of import. However, this does not negate Friedman’s point that the note could have been planted by someone in the Air Force.

The FBI investigation (1988)

The MJ-12 documents were first released in 1987 by Shandera, Moore and Friedman. Another copy of the same documents Shandera received in 1984 was sent to a British researcher Timothy Good in 1987, again from an anonymous source. Good first reproduced them in his book Above Top Secret (1988), but later found that the fraudulent documents likely.

After the documents became widely known with the publication of the book Good, the Federal Bureau of Investigation then began its own investigation, urged on by debunker Philip J. Klass. The MJ-12 documents have been classified as “Top Secret, and the FBI’s primary concern is that someone in the United States government had illegally leaked highly sensitive information.

The FBI quickly formed doubts about the authenticity of documents. FBI personnel contacted the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (cons-espionage), asking if MJ-12 has never existed. AFOSI claimed that no committee has never authorized or trained, and that the documents were “false.” The FBI adopted the AFOSI opinion and the FBI’s official position became that the MJ-12 documents were “completely false.”

However, when Stanton Friedman contacted the AFOSI officer, Col. Richard Weaver, who had rendered this opinion, Friedman said Weaver refused to document his assertion. Friedman also noted that Weaver had taught disinformation and propaganda courses AFOSI and was principal author of the Air Force report debunking Roswell in 1994. (Friedman, 110-115)

Timothy Good in Beyond Top Secret also noted that Weaver in 1994 was the director of security and special control of the Pentagon office AFOSI, a high level of organization within the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force . Good commented that AFOSI is “an organization whose work involves cons-espionage and deception, and has a long history of deep involvement in the UFO problem.” Within the Office of Weaver were “planners special.” According to the well, “In the Air Force language, special diets term is a euphemism for deception as well as for ‘perception management’ plans and operations. Conducting an interview with a witness Roswell, Weaver himself admitted: “We are the people who keep secrets.” It is difficult to tell from interviews such as these, such as tactical Cold War deceptions within deceptions are intentionally vague on where the disinformation and concealment for intelligence and effective investigation of the government on UFOs begins.

William Moore would later be revealed that all of New Mexico UFO disinformation scheme was run out of the Pentagon by a Colonel Barry Hennessey of AFOSI. When the directory of Defense Department phone was checked, Hennessey was listed under the “Department of special techniques.” Working under him at the time was the same Col. Weaver.

Friedman raised the question of whether an opinion Weaver objective information on the authenticity of the MJ-12 documents or was deliberately misleading the FBI as an intelligence-cons and disinformation agent, as Doty had done with Moore and Howe earlier.

Journalist Howard Blum in his book Out There (1990) describes in detail the difficulties the FBI to know the truth. One frustrated FBI agent told Blum, “All that we have discovered is that the government does not know what he knows. There are too many secret levels. You can not get a true story. It would not surprise me if we never know if the documents are authentic or not. “