May 012011
 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods, or Northwoods, was a series of false-flag operation proposals that emerged within the government of the United States in 1962. Commit to the proposals for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other officials called terrorist attacks in U.S. cities and elsewhere. These terrorist acts were to be blamed on Cuba, to win public support for a war against the nation that had recently under Fidel Castro Communist created. Part of the Operation Northwoods was to “develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.”

Operation Northwoods proposals hijackings and bombings by the introduction of forged evidence to imply that the Cuban government would be followed. It states:

“The desired resultant from the execution of this plan would put the United States justified in the apparent position of suffering symptoms of a rash and irresponsible government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to peace in the Western Hemisphere.”

Several other proposals were included in Operation Northwoods, including real or simulated actions against various U.S. military and civilian targets. The plan was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chairman Lyman Lemnitzer signed and developed to the Secretary of Defense. Although part of the U.S. government anti-communist Cuban Project initiative Operation Northwoods was never officially recognized, and the proposals in the plan was never executed.

James Bamford holds North Woods as follows:

Operation Northwoods, which called the written consent of the Chairman and every member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for innocent people to had shot on American streets, to be sunk boat with refugees in Cuba on the high seas, in a wave of violent terrorism Washington, DC, Miami and elsewhere started. People would be for bomb attacks have not committed; planes would be hijacked. With false evidence, everything would be blamed on Castro, thus giving Lemnitzer and his cronies the excuse, and public and international support, they had to start their war.

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

Development and publication

The main proposal was in a document entitled “Justification for U.S. military intervention in Cuba (TS), a top-secret collection of draft memoranda from the Department of Defense (DoD) written and presented to the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The document was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara 13th March presented as a preliminary submission for planning. The Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended that both the overt and covert aspects of such an operation will be assigned to them.

The previously secret document was originally published on 18 November 1997 by the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board, a federal agency monitors the release of official documents that you are to John F. Kennedy assassination. A total of 1521 pages of once-secret military records from 1962 to 1964 were released simultaneously by the review board said.

“Annex to Appendix A” and “Annex to Appendix to Appendix A” of the Northwoods document were first published online on 6 November 1998 by the National Security Archive in a joint venture with CNN as part of CNN’s 1998 Cold War television documentary series – especially as a complement to the documentary “Episode 10: Cuba, on 29 aired November 1998. “Annex to Appendix to Appendix A” is the section of the document containing the proposals of terrorist attacks level.

The Northwoods document was published online on 30 April 2001 in a more complete form (ie, including cover memoranda) by the National Security Archive.

What they did

In response to a request for pretexts for military intervention by the Chief of Operations of the Cuba Project, Brig General Edward Lansdale, the document listed methods and outlined plans that the authors believed the public and international support for U.S. military intervention in Cuba Garner . These were supposed to be staged attacks of Cuban origin.

Since it seems desirable to use legitimate provocation as the basis for U.S. military intervention in Cuba a cover and deception plan, to have been necessary preparatory measures, such as has developed in response to Task 33 c, could be used as a first attempt to provoke run are Cuban reactions. Harassment plus deceptive actions to convince the Cubans of imminent invasion would be emphasized. Our military posture during the execution of the plan will allow a rapid change from exercise to intervention if Cuban response justifies.

A series of well-coordinated incidents will be planned to take in and around Guantanamo to give genuine appearance, done by hostile Cuban forces.

a. incidents on a credible attack (not in chronological order):

Start rumors (many). Use clandestine radio.

Land friendly Cubans in uniform “over-the-fence” to stage attack on base.

Capture Cuban (friendly) saboteurs inside the base.

Start riots near the base main gate (friendly Cubans).

Blow up ammunition to the base; fires.

Burn aircraft on air base (sabotage).

Lob mortar shells from outside the base in the base. Some damage to installations.

Capture assault teams approaching from the sea or vicinity of Guantanamo City.

Capture militia storms the base.

Sabotage ship in harbor, large fire-naphthalene.

Basin near port entrance ship. Code of Conduct funerals for mock-victims (may instead of (10) be).

b. United States would be protected by executing offensive operations to water and energy supplies, destroying artillery and mortar emplacements which threaten the foundation to respond.

c. Begin large-scale U.S. military operations.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

 

A “Remember the Maine” incident could be arranged in various forms:

a. We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba.

b. We could blow up a drone (unmanned) vessel anywhere in the Cuban waters. We arrange such incident in the vicinity of Havana or Santiago as a spectacular result cause of the Cuban attack from the air or at sea, or both. The presence of Cuban planes or ships only to study the intention of the ship was pretty convincing evidence that the ship was attacked be removed. The proximity to Havana or Santiago would be credibility, especially those people that the explosion may have seen or heard to pour fire. The U.S. could follow-up covered with an air / sea rescue operation by U.S. fighters ‘evacuate’ remaining members of the crew on the non-existent. Casualty in U.S. newspapers would be a helpful wave of national indignation.

We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.

The terror campaign could be refugees seek refuge in the United States should be drawn. We could sink a boatload of Cubans en route to Florida (real or simulated). We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban are refugees in the United States even to the extent of the injury in the cases made it widely known. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, substantiating the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of the documents prepared Cuban involvement, also in the planning of the idea of ​​an irresponsible government would be helpful.

A “Cuban-based, Castro-supported” filibuster could be simulated against a neighboring Caribbean nation (in the vein of June 14 invasion of the Dominican Republic). We know that Castro is on subversive efforts clandestinely against Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Nicaragua and in the present and possible others. These efforts can be magnified and additional ones for the artificial exposure. For example, the advantages of sensitivity can be taken of the Dominican air force attacks in their national airspace. “Cuba” could be B-26 or C-46 aircraft of the type to make cane burning raids at night. Soviet Bloc incendiaries could be found. This could be “Cuban” messages to the Communist underground in the Dominican Republic and “Cuban” shipments of arms, would be found or caught, be coupled to the beach.

Use of MIG type aircraft by U.S. pilots could provide additional provocation. Harassment of civil air, attacks on ships and the destruction of the U.S. military drone of MIG type planes would be useful as complementary actions. An F-86 would paint passengers that they saw a Cuban MIG, especially if the pilot of the traffic, this fact was known to convince. The main disadvantage of this proposal seems to be the security risk associated with obtaining or modifying an aircraft. However, appropriate copies of the MIG of U.S. resources in about three months to be produced.

to appear Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft continue as harassing measures condoned by the government of Cuba. At the same time real deserter from the Cuban civilian and military air and surface temperature should crafts are encouraged.

It is possible for an event to demonstrate the convincingly that a Cuban aircraft has attacked and shot at creating a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The goal would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba. The passengers were off a group of college students on a holiday or to support any grouping of persons with a common interest in chartering a non-scheduled flight.

a. An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for civilian aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in Miami. At one time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would use the selected passengers, all under carefully prepared aliases loaded aboard. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone.

b. Take time the drones and the actual aircraft is expected to allow a rendezvous south of Florida. From the meeting point of the passenger aircraft will increase to minimum altitude and directly into an auxiliary field Eglin AFB where arrangements are made to evacuate the passengers and the aircraft back to its original state. The drones will now continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will start the transfer on the international distress frequency “MAY” message he is under attack by Cuban MIG aircraft. The transfer is the destruction of the aircraft, which is triggered by radio interrupted. This will allow ICAO radio stations in the western hemisphere, say the U.S., what happened to the aircraft instead of the U.S. is trying to “sell” the incident.

It is possible for an event to bring the would appear that Communist Cuban MIGs have destroyed a USAF aircraft over international waters in an unprovoked attack.

a. Approximately 4 or 5 F-101 aircraft will track from Homestead AFB, Florida, sent to the vicinity of Cuba. Your task will be to reverse course and simulate fakir aircraft for an air defense exercise in southern Florida. These aircraft would conduct variations of these flights on a regular basis. Crews would be briefed at least 12 miles off the Cuban coast will remain, but they would have live ammunition in the event that hostile actions of the Cuban MIGs have been worn.

b. On one such flight, a pre-briefed pilot would fly tail-end Charley at considerable interval between aircraft. While near the Cuban island this pilot would broadcast that he was jumped by MIGs and went under. No other calls would be made. The pilot would then fly directly west at extremely low altitude and land at a secure base, an Eglin auxiliary. The aircraft would be the right people, quickly stored and reached a new tail number. The pilot, the mission would have carried out under a pseudonym would be back its own identity and has returned to his normal seat. The pilot and aircraft would then be gone.

c. In exactly the same time that the aircraft was probably shot down a submarine or small surface craft would pay F-101 parts, parachute, ride, etc., at about 15 to 20 miles off the Cuban coast. The pilots returning to Homestead would be a true story, if they did have. Search ships and aircraft could be shipped and displayed in parts of the aircraft.

Related Operation Mongoose proposals

In addition to Operation Northwoods, under the Operation Mongoose program of the U.S. Department of Defense held a number of similar proposals to be taken against the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro.

Twelve of these proposals by a second February 1962 memorandum entitled “Possible Actions to provoke, harass or Disrupt Cuba,” are written by Brig. submitted to General William H. Craig, and to Brig. General Edward Lansdale, the commander of Operation Mongoose project.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

 

The memorandum describes Operation Bingo, a plan to “create an incident that has an attack on U.S. facilities (GMO) in Cuba and thus to overthrow an apology for the use of U.S. military might over the current Government of Cuba. ”

It also includes operation dirty trick to blame a piece of land when Castro 1962 Mercury crashed manned space flight carrying John Glenn, said: “The goal is the irrevocable proof that, should the MERCURY orbit have not occupied, the fault lies with the Communists .. et al Cuba [sic] “It continues:” This production by the various clues which would prove electronic interference on the part of Cubans to be achieved “.

Even after Lemnitzer lost his job as General Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Chiefs of Staff, false-flag pretext for planned operations, at least in 1963. Another U.S. Department of Defense policy paper prepared in 1963 discussed a plan to give the impression that Cuba was a member of the Organization of American States (OAS), so that the United States could retaliatory attack. The U.S. Department of Defense document says one of the scenarios, “a fictional” Cuban “attack on a member of the OAS could be established, and the attacked state could be asked to take measures of self-defense and the assistance of the United States and OAS.”

The plan was confident that by this action, “the U.S. could almost certainly get the necessary two-thirds support among OAS members for collective action against Cuba.”

Included in the nations of the Joint Chiefs suggested as targets for covert attacks were Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago. Since both were members of the British Commonwealth, the Joint Chiefs hoped that attack by capturing and then falsely blaming Cuba, the USA, people in Switzerland could be in support of a war against Castro foment. As the U.S. Department of Defense report noted:

Each of the situations described above are designed by nature extremely risky in our democratic system to maintain the security, may be after the fact, with very great difficulty. If the decision was the establishment of a contrived situation it is one that should be limited to participation by U.S. personnel only to the most trusted covert personnel. This indicates the inability to use the military units for each aspect of the constructed situation. ”

The U.S. Department beat of Defense report even secretly attacking payment of a person in the Castro government in the United States: “The only area remaining would be to test it to one of the subordinates to bribe Castro, an attack on [the U.S. Navy initiate base] Guantanamo. ”

Reaction

The continued pressure against the Cuban government by internal elements of the U.S. military and intelligence community (the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs, the Cuban Project, etc.) have already called on President John F. Kennedy to try to burgeoning reins hardline anti-communist feeling that intent was in a proactive, aggressive action against communist movements around the globe. After the invasion of the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy had fired CIA Director Allen W. Dulles, Deputy Director Charles P. Cabell, and Deputy Director Richard Bissell, and turned his attention towards Vietnam. Kennedy had also robbed the CIA responsibility for paramilitary operations such as the Bay of Pigs and turned it to the U.S. Department of Defense and Joint Chiefs of Staff, as Commander in Chief, Kennedy was able to control more directly. Kennedy personally expressed outrage many of his employees about growing influence of the CIA on the civilian population and government in America, and his attempt to curtail the CIA’s extensive Cold War, and paramilitary operations was a direct expression of that concern.

Kennedy rejected the Northwoods proposal personally, and it is now the Joint Chiefs’ turn to make his displeasure. A JCS / Pentagon document (Ed Lansdale Memo) of 16 March 1962 as meeting with the President, March 16, 1962 reads: “General Lemnitzer commented that the military contingency plans for U.S. intervention, he had also had plans to use to create plausible pretexts. Force, with the pretext of attacks on U.S. aircraft or a Cuban action in Latin America, for we could fight back. The president said bluntly that we do not discuss the use of military force that General Lemnitzer the United States could thus be found in Berlin or elsewhere engaged, he could not with the planned four divisions in Cuba. “The proposal was to authorize the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, but was not implemented.

After presenting the Northwoods plan from Kennedy Lemnitzer as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, although he was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO in January 1963. American armed forces leaders began to realize how soft Kennedy los Cuba, and the president is increasingly unpopular with the military, a gap that came to a head during Kennedy’s disagreement with the service chiefs on the Cuban missile crisis.

On 3 August 2001 adopted the National Assembly of People’s Power of Cuba (the main legislative organ of the Republic of Cuba) a statement relating to Operation Northwoods and Operation Mongoose which it condemned as the U.S. government plans.

 

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods

Jul 242010
 

In conspiracy theory, the term New World Order or NWO refers to the emergence of a bureaucratic collectivist world government.

The common theme in conspiracy theories about a new world order is that of a powerful elite and secretive globalist agenda with conspiring to eventually rule the world through a global totalitarian government that would replace nation-states sovereign and put an end to international power struggles. Important events in politics and finance are speculated to be orchestrated by a cabal of influential operating through numerous front organizations. Many historical and current events are seen as steps in an ongoing conspiracy to achieve world domination through political rallies and secret decision-making.

Before the early 1990s, New World Order conspiracy theories has been limited to two cons-American cultures, primarily the right anti-government activist, fundamentalist Christians and secondarily interested in the emergence of the late time of the Antichrist. The skeptics, including Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet, expressed concern that the conspiracy theories of the far right of a New World Order have not only been embraced by many conspiracy theorists on the left, but have infiltrated the popular culture, ushering in a period of unparalleled people are actively preparing for the millennial apocalyptic United States in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. These political scientists warn that mass hysteria can only fuel terrorism lone wolf, but have devastating effects on American politics, as the extreme right courting the far left to join a revolutionary movement, Third Position able to overturn the established political powers.

In the 20th century, many state, as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill used the term “new world order” to denote a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in the thinking of politics and the balance of power after the First World War and Second World War. They have all seen these periods as opportunities to implement proposals idealistic or liberal global governance in the new sense of collective efforts to identify, understand, or solve worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of nation states to resolve. These proposals have led to the creation of international organizations, such as the United Nations and NATO, and international regimes, such as Bretton Woods and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power and regulate cooperation among nations to achieve a peaceful phase of capitalism. These creations in particular, and of internationalism, in general, however, will always be criticized and opposed by the American right based on isolationism Old and the New Right for benevolent imperialist reasons.

Following the two world wars, liberals have welcomed these new organizations and international regimes, but argued they have suffered a democratic deficit and therefore have not only been insufficient to prevent another world war, but also promote global justice. Thus, activists around the world form a penchant World Federalist Movement on the creation of a “real” new world order. In the 1940s, the British writer HG Wells and futuristic would go further by appropriating and redefining the term “new world order” as synonymous with the creation of a scientifically managed state of the world and socialist economy.

During the Red Scare of 1947-1957, the conspiracy theorists on the American right secular and Christian increasingly adopted mongered and unfounded fears of Freemasons, the Illuminati and the Jews to be the driving force behind an “international communist conspiracy.” The threat of world communism as an atheist state and bureaucratic collectivist world government, demonized as a “Red Menace”, therefore became the main objective of millenarian apocalyptic conspiracy theories.

In the 1960s, the populist right individuals and groups with a worldview producerist, as members of the John Birch Society, played a lot of conspiracy theories claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of internationalists business, greedy bankers and corrupt politicians intent on using the United Nations as a means to create “One World Government.” These unfounded fears of fuel would campaign for the withdrawal of U.S. Bircher UN. American writer Mary M. Davison, in his pamphlet The profound revolution in 1966, traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913 by international bankers, who she later asked, formed the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921 the shadow government. When the brochure was published, “international bankers” have been interpreted by many readers as a reference to an alleged “international Jewish conspiracy banking” orchestrated by the Rothschild.

Affirming that the term “New World Order” is used by a secret elite dedicated to the destruction of all national sovereignties, American writer producerist Gary Allen in his 1971 book No Dare Call It Conspiracy, 1974 Rockefeller book: The Campaign for the New Global Order Book and 1987 Say “No!” New World Order, hinged on the theme of many anti-globalist conspiracy theories right now the United States. Thus, after the fall of communism in the 1990s, the main scapegoat demonized the extreme American right seamlessly changed from crypto-communist who conspired on behalf of the Red Menace to globalists who plot on behalf of New World Order. The relatively painless evolution is due to growing opposition from right to the globalization of capitalism, but also partly the basis underlying paradigm millennial apocalypse, which fueled the Cold War and witch hunts of the McCarthy period.

In its September 11, 1990 Towards a New World Order speech to a joint session of Congress, President George HW Bush described his goals for governance post-Cold War world in cooperation with the post-Soviet states:

Until now, the world we’ve known has been a world divided—a world of barbed wire and concrete block, conflict and cold war. Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a “world order” in which “the principles of justice and fair play … protect the weak against the strong …” A world where the United Nations, freed from cold war stalemate, is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.

The New York Times noted that progressive new world order called the rationalization of American imperial ambitions in the Middle East, while the Conservatives dismissed new security altogether and fulminated any possibility of revival of UN. However, Chip Berlet, an American journalist specializing in investigative study of extreme right movements in the United States, wrote:

When President Bush announced his new foreign policy would help build a New World Order, his phrasing surged through the Christian and secular hard right like an electric shock, since the phrase had been used to represent the dreaded collectivist One World Government for decades. Some Christians saw Bush as signaling the End Times betrayal by a world leader. Secular anticommunists saw a bold attempt to smash US sovereignty and impose a tyrannical collectivist system run by the United Nations.

American televangelist Pat Robertson in 1991 with his bestselling book The New World Order has become the most important popularizer of Christian conspiracy theories in recent American history as a scene in which Wall Street, the Federal Reserve, Council on Foreign Relations, Bilderberg Group, Trilateral Commission control the flow of events behind the scenes, we are constantly pushing and quietly in the direction of a world government for the Antichrist.

Observers note that the galvanization of the populist right conspiracy theorists as Linda Thompson, Mark and Robert K. Koernke Spear in activism led to the rise of the militias, which spread its ideology through anti-government speeches at rallies and meetings, through books and videotapes sold at gun shows, by waves short and satellite radio, and through networks of fax and message boards. However, viral propaganda on the Internet is the most effective contribution to their political extremists on the New World Order finding their way into the literature on the extreme left of some black nationalists, but also literature previously apolitical assassinologists many UFO Kennedy The loss of land theorists and, more recently, occultists. The worldwide appeal of these subcultures then passed the New World Order conspiracy theories like a virus “spirit” to a broad audience of new researchers counterknowledge from mid-1990.

In Europe, national-anarchism, an ideology of extreme right articulated by the British post-third activist Troy Southgate, called for an insurrection against, and the secession of the imagination “Zionist, capitalist New World Order” . National-Anarchists see a convergence in the near future between the left and decentralizing decentralization law to fight against the rise of centralized political and economic New World Order.

After the turn of the century, especially during the financial crisis of 2007-2010, many politicians and experts, like Gordon Brown and Henry Kissinger used the term “new world order” in their advocacy for reform of ‘Keynesian global financial system and their calls for a “new Bretton Woods”, which takes into account the emerging markets like China and India. These declarations had the unintended consequence of providing fresh fodder for New World Order conspiracy theories, and culminated in the former Clinton administration adviser Dick Morris and Sean Hannity conservative talk show claiming his Fox News Channel program Hannity that “conspiracy theorists were right.” Fox News in general, and opinion polls show Glenn Beck, in particular, have been repeatedly criticized by the progressive media watchdog groups not only to integrate the theories of New World Order conspiracy of the radical right, but perhaps shaking his lone wolves in action.

In 2009, U.S. Director Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel published New World Order, a documentary film by acclaimed critic who explores the world of conspiracy theorists, as U.S. radio host Alex Jones, who are committed to exposing and opposing strongly to what they perceive to be the emergence of a New World Order.



The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945

The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945

May 182010
 

Operation Paperclip was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program used to recruit scientists from Nazi Germany for use by the United States after the Second World War (1939-45). He was executed by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), and in the context of the growing Soviet-American Cold War (1945-1991), one of the objectives of Operation Paperclip was to deny the German scientific knowledge and expertise of the USSR and the United Kingdom.

Although the recruitment of German scientists JIOA started after the Allied victory in Europe (May 8, 1945), U.S. President Harry Truman did not officially running for Operation Paperclip until August 1945. To Truman expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism.” Said restrictions made it more objectionable to scientists JIOA identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph, and the doctor Hubertus Strughold, both previously classified as a threat “to security forces allied”.

To circumvent the anti-Nazi agenda of President Truman and the Potsdam and Yalta agreements allies, the JIOA worked independently to create jobs and fake political biographies of scientists. The JIOA also removed from the public register of Nazi scientists memberships and affiliations Party regime. Once “cleared” of Nazism, the U.S. government has granted security clearance for scientists working in the United States. Paperclip, the project’s operational name, derived from the clips used to secure scientific personae of new policies to their “American government” scientific personnel records JIOA.

The Osenberg List

Having failed to conquer the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa (June-December 1941), the siege of Leningrad (September 1941-January 1944), Operation Nordlicht (August-October 1942), and the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942-February 1943), the Nazi Germany is a disadvantage logistics. The conquest was not the exhaustion of resources in German and its military-industrial complex was not prepared to defend the Reich Großdeutsches (Greater German Reich) against the counter-attack in the west of the Red Army. In early 1943, the German government began recalling the battle a number of scientists, engineers and technicians, they returned to work in research and development to strengthen the German defense for a long war with the USSR. The recall of front-line combat included 4000 Rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in the north-east coast of Germany, namely:

“Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. „

Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemünde to Canaveral

The Government recalls Nazi Jewish intellectuals currently useful for scientific work necessary to first identify and locate scientists, engineers and technicians can check their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the research engineer in charge of Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association), has recorded the names of politicians Authorized to List Osenberg, which reintegration in scientific work.

In March 1945, University of Bonn, a Polish laboratory technician to find pieces of the list Osenberg stuffed in the toilet, the list eventually reached MI6, who passed it to U.S. intelligence. Then, the U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chairman of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Directorate of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, a list Osenberg used to compile the list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated Wernher von Braun, the Nazi scientist German rocket Prime head of the list’s Grand Staver.

Identification

Operation Overcast – Major Staver original intention was only to the scientists, but what he learned changed purpose of the operation. On May 22, 1945, he sent the telegram from the U.S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes, who urges the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as “The most important for [the war] Pacific” effort. Most engineers worked Osenberg List the German Baltic Coast Army Research Center Peenemünde rocket development V-2, after the seizure, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, southern Germany.

Beginning July 19, 1945, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) has managed the CRA Rocketeers captured under a program called Operation Overcast. However, when the “Camp Overcast” name-quarters of scientists locally became known, the program was renamed the operation paperclip in March 1946. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press has interviewed several scientists.

Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence describes nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, Germany’s main nuclear power project, such as “. . . more value to us than ten divisions of Germans. “In addition Rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also asked chemists, doctors, and naval weaponeers.

Meanwhile, the technical director of the German Army Rocket Wernher von Braun, was imprisoned at PO Box 1142, a secret prison in military intelligence at Fort Hunt, Virginia, USA. Since the prison was unknown to the International Red Cross, its exploitation by the United States in violation of the Geneva Convention. Although the interrogators Von Braun put pressure on him, he was not tortured, but in 1944, another prisoner of war, submarine captain Werner Henke was shot at Fort Hunt.

Capture and detention

From the beginning the United States has established the Subcommittee Combined Intelligence Objectives (CIO). This provided information on the objectives of T-Forces that were targeted in scientific, military and industrial facilities (and their employees) for their expertise. Initial priorities have been the advanced technology such as infrared, which could be used in the war against Japan, to discover what technology has been adopted in Japan, and finally stop searching. A project to halt the search was called “Project Safe Haven” and it was not originally planned against the Soviet Union, but the concern was that German scientists could emigrate and continue their research in countries like Spain, Argentina or Egypt, who had sympathized with Nazi Germany.

Much of the efforts of the United States has focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which, by July 1, 1945 will be part of the Soviet occupation zone. Many German research institutions and personnel were evacuated to the States, especially the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would restrict the ability of the United States to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from that expertise, the U.S. instigated a process of drain “of scientists from Saxony and Thuringia, the issuance of orders such as:

On the orders of the Military Government you have to bring your family and your luggage as you can win tomorrow afternoon at 1300 hours (Friday, June 22, 1945) instead of the town of Bitterfeld. It is not necessary to make winter clothing. Easily transported goods, such as family papers, jewelry, and others should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest station. From there, you travel to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter the size of your family.

In 1947, the evacuation was raised in 1800 estimated technicians and scientists, and 3700-family members. Those with skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers as the code name bin, to be detained and interrogated, in some cases for months.

Some scientists have been collected in the Operation Overcast, but most were moved into villages in the countryside where there were no research facilities do not work, they were provided allowances and forced to report twice a week at the police station to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive on research and education said that technicians and scientists should be released “only after all relevant agencies have ensured that all intelligence information sought has been obtained from them.”

On November 5, 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to discuss the situation of evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the United States, and the possible violation “by the U.S. laws of war or rules of land warfare.” The intelligence director OMGUS RL Walsh has launched a program to relocate evacuees in the Third World, as the Germans called General Walsh “Urwald-Programm” (program of the jungle), but the program never matured. In 1948, 69.5 million were evacuated settlements Reich marks U.S. U.S., a regulation that has quickly become highly devalued during the currency reform that introduced the deutsche mark as its official currency of West Germany.

John Gimbel concluded that the United States put some of the best minds of Germany on the ice for three years, thus depriving the resumption of German expertise.

Operation Paperclip Team

Operation Paperclip Team - A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas; 35 worked at the White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico.

Scientists

In May 1945, the U.S. Navy has received Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the HS 293 missiles for two years, he first worked in Special Devices Centre at Castle Gould House in Hempstead, Long Island, New York in 1947, he moved to Naval Air Station Point Mugu.

In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, Chief Executive of the rocket of Research and Development Division of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists, 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket science arrived at Fort Strong, New York: Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.

In November, December and February, three rocket scientist came to the United States to the service at Fort Bliss, Texas and White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as “War Department Special Employees.

In the early 1950s, legal residence in the United States for certain specialists Paperclip project was affected by the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, therefore, Nazi scientists came legally to the United States to Latin America .

For many decades later, in wartime activities of some scientists Paperclip project were studied. Arthur Rudolph was expelled in 1984 and cleared by the FRG. Similarly, Georg Rickhey was acquitted of war crimes. Hubertus Strughold was involved in Nazi human experimentation, the Aeromedical Library at Brooks Air Force Base was named in his honor in 1977, but was later renamed because the documents of the Nuremberg Tribunal of war crimes related to Strughold medical experiments in which the Dachau prisoners were tortured and killed.

Ninety-six engineers aeronautical were transferred to Wright Field, where the U.S. had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment seized under Operation Lusty (Luftwaffe Secret Technology).

The U.S. army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists – including physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Levovec, physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars and Eberhard both, geophysicist Dr. Helmut Weickmann; the optician Gerhard Schwesinger, and engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Guenther and Hans Ziegler.

In 1946, the U.S. Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel science in a chemical plant Fischer-Tropsch Louisiana, Missouri.

In 1959, ninety-four Operation Paperclip men went to the United States, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand. Until 1990, a paper clip operation imported 1,600 men, under the intellectual reparations owed to the United States and the United Kingdom, some 10 billion dollars in patents and industrial processes.