The U.S. government funded and conducted numerous psychological experiments, especially during the Cold War. Many of these experiments were conducted to help develop more effective torture and interrogation techniques the U.S. military and intelligence agencies, and develop techniques to resist torture at the hands of the enemy nations and organizations.
In studies from 1947 to 1953, which was known as Project Chatter, the U.S. Navy has begun to identify and test the truth serums, which they hoped could be used during interrogations of Soviet spies. Some of the chemicals tested in human subjects included mescaline and central nervous system depressant scopolamine.
Shortly after, in 1950, the CIA launched Project Bluebird, later renamed Project Artichoke, whose stated purpose was to develop “the means of controlling individuals through special interrogation techniques”, “as to prevent unauthorized extraction of information from CIA agents, “and” offensive uses of unconventional techniques, such as hypnosis and drugs. “The project has been outlined in a memorandum dated January 1952 stated: “Can we take control of a person to the point where it will make our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?” The project studied the use of hypnosis, forced morphine dependence and withdrawal forced, and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects. In order to “perfect technology for the production of information from individuals, whether willing or not,” the researchers project Bluebird experienced a variety of psychoactive substances, including LSD, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, mescaline, and ether. Bluebird Project researchers determined on military personnel of the United States 7000 with LSD without their knowledge or consent, Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland. More than 1,000 of those soldiers suffering from several psychiatric disorders, including depression and epilepsy, as a result of the tests. Many of them tried to commit suicide.
In 1952, tennis player Harold Blauer died when injected with a lethal dose of mescaline, a derivative of the New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University by Dr. James Cattell. The U.S. Department of Defense, who sponsored the injection, worked in collusion with the Department of Justice and the New York State Attorney General to conceal evidence of his involvement in 23 years. Cattell said he did not know what the army had given him to inject into Blauer, saying: “We do not know if it was dog piss or what we gave him.”
In 1953, the CIA has placed several of his interrogation and control programs of the mind in the direction of a single program, known by the codename MKULTRA, CIA Director Allen Dulles complained after not not have enough “human Guinea pigs to try these amazing techniques. MKULTRA project was under the direct command of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division. The project has received over 25 million dollars and involving hundreds of experiments on human subjects to eighty different institutions.
In a note describing the purpose of a program sub-program MKULTRA, Richard Helms, said:
We intend to investigate the development of a chemical that causes a reversible, non-toxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of what can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. This material could help discredit individuals, obtain information, and implementation suggestions and other forms of mind control.
—Richard Helms, CIA internal memo
In 1954, the CIA QKHILLTOP project was created to study Chinese brainwashing techniques and to develop effective methods of interrogation. Most initial studies were carried out by Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Studies Program, under the direction of Dr Harold Wolff. Wolff asked the CIA to provide any information they could find in regard to “threats, coercion, imprisonment, deprivation, humiliation, torture,” brainwashing, “” black psychiatry , and hypnosis, or any combination thereof, with or without chemical agents. According to Wolff, the research team would be:
… Assemble, collect, analyze and assimilate this information and will then experimental studies aimed at developing new techniques for the offensive / defensive use of intelligence … Potentially useful drugs secrets (and brain damaging various procedures) will also be tested to verify the basic effect on human brain function and mood of the subject … When one of the studies relate to damages of the object, we expect the agency to provide suitable subjects and a place for achieving the necessary experiments.
—Dr. Harold Wolff, Cornell University Medical School
Another sub-project MKULTRA, Operation Midnight Climax, consisted of a network of shelters for the CIA in San Francisco, Marin, and New York have been set up to study the effects of LSD on non-consenting individuals. Prostitutes on the CIA payroll have been responsible for attracting clients to shelters, where they have been surreptitiously plied with a wide range of substances, including LSD, and followed behind a glass-sided. Several important operational techniques have been developed in this drama, including extensive research on sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the ability to use mind-altering drugs field operations.
In 1957, with funding from a front organization for the CIA, Dr. Ewan Cameron Allen Memorial Hospital in Montreal, Canada began to MKULTRA subproject 68. His experiments were designed primarily “depattern” individuals, erasing their minds and memories, reduce the mental level of a child, and then to “reconstruct” their personality in a manner of his choosing. To do this, Cameron placed patients under his “care” in drug-induced coma for up to 88 days, and completed many high-voltage electric shocks to them in weeks or months, often to administer 360 shocks per person. He would then perform what he called “psychic driving” experiments on subjects in which he played repeatedly recorded statements such as “You’re a good wife and mother, and people enjoy your company” top of speakers, it was established in blackened football helmets that related to the head of the test subjects (for sensory deprivation). Patients could do nothing but listen to these messages, played for 16 -20 hours a day for weeks at a time. In one case, Cameron compels someone to listen to a message non-stop for 101 days. With funding from the CIA, Cameron converted stables behind Allen Memorial develop in isolation and sensory deprivation chamber where he kept patients immobilized for several weeks in a row. Cameron also caused insulin coma in his subjects by giving them large injections of insulin twice daily for two months at a time. Many children Cameron experimented on were sexually abused, in one case at least by several men. A child has been filmed several times to perform sexual acts with officials federal government under a system set up by Cameron and others MKULTRA, blackmail public officials to secure additional financing for the experiments.
The leaders of the CIA had serious concerns about their behavior unethical and illegal, as evidenced in a 1957 report, Inspector General, who stated:
Care must be taken not only to protect operations from exposure to enemy forces, but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general. The knowledge that the organization engages in activities unethical and illegal would have serious repercussions in the political and diplomatic …
—CIA Inspector General Report -1957
In 1957, Dr. Robert Heath of Tulane University conducted experiments on patients with schizophrenia, who were funded by the U.S. military. In studies, he exposed to high levels of LSD, then implanted electrodes deep “in their brains to take measures EEG.
MKULTRA activities continued until 1973, when CIA Director Richard Helms, fearing they would be exposed to the public, ordered the project is completed and all files destroyed. Fortunately, a clerical error had sent numerous documents to the wrong office, so when workers destroyed the CIA files, some of them remained, and were released under a request from Freedom of Information Act by investigative journalist John Marks. Many people in the American public were outraged when they learned experiences, and several Congressional investigations were held, including the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission.
In 1963, the CIA gave a summary of many results of his psychological research into what became known as the cons of manual-intelligence interrogation KUBARK., Who cited studies MKULTRA and other secret research programs the scientific basis of their interrogation methods Cameron regularly around the United States teaching military personnel about his techniques (somersaulting prisoners to sensory deprivation, prolonged isolation, humiliation, etc.) and how they could be used in interrogations. Latin American paramilitary groups working for the CIA and U.S. military training in these psychological techniques in places like the School of the Americas, and even today, most torture techniques developed in studies MKULTRA and other programs are used in the U.S. military and CIA prisons like Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib. Following congressional hearings, major news media primarily focus on sensational stories of LSD, “” mind control and brainwashing, “and rarely used the word” torture. ” This has removed the image that the CIA researchers were, as one author put it “a bunch of clumsy buffoons science fiction,” rather than a group of wise men who ran the torture and medical experimentation labs in major U.S. universities, and who had tortured, raped, and psychologically young children, driving many of them permanently insane.
From 1964 to 1968, the U.S. military paid 386,486 dollars for professors Albert Kligman and Herbert W. Copelan to conduct experiments with mind-altering drugs on 320 inmates of Holmesburg Prison. The aim of the study was to determine the minimum effective dose of each drug needed to disable 50 percent of a given population. Kligman and Copelan initially said they were unaware of any long-term health effects of drugs could have on the prisoners, however, documents later revealed that this was not the case.